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Most Expensive and Cheapest Countries in Europe

Most Expensive and Cheapest Countries in Europe

Which are the most affordable countries in Europe? Which are the most expensive ones? In this post I am going to analyze such issues using a number of sources  and items (see below) that  can help solve this conundrum.  We saw earlier which are the most expensive and cheapest cities in Europe. Today I am going to focus on each country as a whole. The main parameters used to list the countries in this ranking are GDP per capita, place in the UN Human Development Index, the Big Mac Index, the price of the shopping basket in each country compared to the European average, the price of 1 Kg of rice (as representative of staple food) and then, within each country, you can even check the most expensive and cheapest cities.  As we all know, everything is relative (e.g., the market basket in a given country may be more expensive but taxes may be lower), but I think it can offer an overview of the current state of affairs.

While it is true that living standards tend to be lower in Eastern European countries, they are also generally cheaper, or more affordable, if you like, for tourists, expats or people teleworking online (such as freelance translators, copywriters, writers or graphic designers) for, say, western companies or agencies.  Portugal, Latvia and Bulgaria feature among the cheapest countries regarding income tax for self-employed or freelancers.On the other hand, Scandinavian countries are considered to be expensive  and have high taxes, but they also rank among the countries with the highest living standards not only in Europe, but in the whole world. They are undoubtedly an example of good governance for others to follow.

Today I won’t go into qualitative aspects, since many would argue ‚ÄĒnot without reason‚ÄĒ that weather conditions, the nutritional quality of local food, the social fabric, the quality of social services, gender-equality policies, even the so-called Happiness Index… are key elements for a good quality of life. I fully share this view, but it is a different kettle of fish.

Below the list of the cheapest countries you can find a description of the main concepts and benchmarks I have used to draw up the ranking as well as the sources consulted.

Most expensive countries in Europe

suiza-pais-mas-caro-de-europa

Most expensive countries in Europe (starting with the most expensive one)

Switzerland

cost of living in Switzerland

Population: 8,544,034
Currency: Swiss Franc
GDP per capita: 80,590 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 3
Big Mac Index: 6.59
Cost of the market basket: 163% of the European average
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.52 USD
Most expensive cities in Switzerland: Zurich, Geneva, Basel, Lausanne and Bern
Cheapest cities in Switzerland:Neuchatel, Aarau and St. Gallen
Taxes in Switzerland
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: Low
VAT rate: low

Norway

Cost of Living in Norway

Population: 5,312,343
Currency: Norwegian Krone
GDP per capita: 74,940 USD (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 1
Big Mac Index: 5.51
Cost of the market basket: 137% of the European average
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.98 USD
Most expensive cities in Norway:
Cheapest cities in Norway: Bodo and Kristiansand
Taxes in Norway
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: High
Income tax: High
VAT rate: High

Iceland

Iceland

Grocery shopping prices in Iceland

Youtube channel: Iceland with a view

Population: 350,710
Currency: Icelandic Krona
GDP per capita: 70,332 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 16
Big Mac Index: ——
Cost of the market basket: 125% of the European average
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 3.47 USD
Most expensive cities in Iceland: Reykjavik
Cheapest cities in Iceland: —
Taxes in Iceland
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: High

Denmark

Slovakia most expensive and cheapest countries in Europe
most expensive and cheapest countries in Europe

Population: 5,745,547
Currency: Danish Krone
GDP per capita: 56,444 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 4
Big Mac Index: 4.44
Cost of the market basket: 137% of the European average
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.05 USD
Most expensive cities in Denmark: Silkeborg and Copenhaguen
Cheapest cities in Denmark: Horsens, Odense and Vejle

Taxes in Denmark
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: High
VAT rate: High

Luxembourg

ranking most expensive and cheapest countries in Europe
Cost of living in Europe

Population: 602,000
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: 105,803 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 19
Big Mac Index: —
Cost of the market basket: 119% of the European average
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.05 USD
Puesto en el índice de desarrollo humano: 19
Most expensive cities in Luxembourg: Luxemburgo
Cheapest cities in Luxembourg : —-
Taxes in Luxembourg
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: High
VAT rate: Low

United Kingdom 

cost of living in the UK, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland

Population: 66,040,229
Currency: Pound sterling
GDP per capita: 39,734 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 14
Big Mac Index: 3,94
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.70 USD
Most expensive cities in the UK: London, Oxford, Portsmouth, Aberdeen and Bristol
Cheapest cities in the UK: Sheffield, Sunderland y Dundee
Cost of the market basket: 131% of the European average
Taxes in UK
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: High
VAT rate: Average

Finland

ranking most expensive and cheapest countries in Finland
most expensive and cheapest countries in Europe

Population: 5,517,887
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: 46,016 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 24
Big Mac Index: 5.06
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.20 USD
Most expensive cities in Finland: Helsinki and Tampere
Cheapest cities in Finland: Lapeenranta, Kuopio
Cost of the market basket: 120% of the European average
Taxes in Finland
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: High
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: High

Belgium

cost of living in Belgium
countries ranking

Population: 11,469,204
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: 43,582 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 21
Big Mac Index: 4.35
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.74 USD
Most expensive cities in Belgium:Mons, Bruselas and Namur<
Cheapest cities in Belgium: Leuven and Liege
Cost of the market basket: 107% of the European average
Taxes in Belgium
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: High
Income tax: High
VAT rate: Average

Netherlands

most expensive and cheapest countries in the Netherlands
European Union

Population: 17,254,086
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: 48,345 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 5
Big Mac Index: 3.8
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.62 USD
Most expensive cities in the Netherlands: Zwolle and Amsterdam
Cheapest cities in the Netherlands: Groningen and Enschede
Cost of the market basket: 109% of the European average
Taxes in the Netherlands (Holland)
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: High
Income tax: High
VAT rate: Low

France

cost of living in France
EU most expensive and cheapest countries in Europe

Population: 67,297,000
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: 39,869 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 22
Big Mac Index: 4.51
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.90 USD
Most expensive cities in France: Perigueux, Paris, Lyon and Toulouse
Cheapest cities in France: Saint-√Čtienne, Montpellie, Marseilles and Perpignan
Cost of the market basket: 105% of the European average
Taxes in France
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: High
Income tax: High
VAT rate: Average
id=”Map_of_sovereign_states_in_Europe_by_2017_GDP_nominal_per_capita_based_on_USD_exchange_rate” class=”mw-headline”>GDP nominal per capita based on USD exchange rate

map Europe GDP per capita

Cheapest countries in Europe

most expensive and cheapest countries Moldavia cost of living in Moldavia

Cheapest countries in Europe (starting with the cheapest one):

Moldavia/ Moldova

Moldavia cheapest cities cost of living in Moldavia

Population: 3,564,000
Currency: Moldovan leu
GDP per capita: 2,279 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 107
Big Mac Index: 1.75
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.95 USD
Most expensive cities in Moldavia: Tiraspol
Cheapest cities in Moldavia: Chi»ôinńÉu
Cost of the market basket: 40% of the European average

Ukraine

cost of living in Ukraine

Population: 42,895,704
Currency: Hryvnia
GDP per capita: 2,582 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 81
Big Mac Index: 1.57
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.99 USD
Most expensive cities in Ukraine: Kiev, Lutsk, Lviv, Kirovoghrad, Dnipro and Kharkiv
Cheapest cities in Ukraine: Simferopol and Zaporizhzhya
Cost of the market basket: 45% of the European average
Taxes in Ukraine
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Low
VAT rate: Average

Macedonia

Cost of living in Macedonia

Population: 2,075,301
Currency: Macedonian Denar
GDP per capita: 5,474 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 81
Big Mac Index: 1.90
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.26 USD
Most expensive cities in Macedonia: Veles
Cheapest cities in Macedonia: Prilep, Ohrib
Cost of the market basket: 48% of the European average
Taxes in Macedonia
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: Low

Serbia

cost of living in Serbia

Population: 7,040,272
Currency: Serbian Dinar
GDP per capita: 5,899 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 66
Big Mac Index: 2.08
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.08 USD
Most expensive cities in Serbia: Belgrade, Valjevo
Cheapest cities in Serbia: Zrenjanin, Nis
Cost of the market basket: 49% of the European average
Taxes in Serbia
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: High
VAT rate: Average

Albania

cost of living in Albania

Population: 2,887,000
Currency: Albanian Lek
GDP per capita: 4,582 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 85
Big Mac Index: —–
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.08 USD
Most expensive cities in Albania: Kor√ß√ę
Cheapest cities in Albania:Tirana, Vlor√ę and Elbasam
Cost of the market basket: 47% of the European average
Taxes in Albania
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: Average

Bosnia and herzegovina

cost of living in Bosnia

Population: 3,750,000
Currency: Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible Mark
GDP per capita: 5,148 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 86
Big Mac Index: ——
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.23 USD
Most expensive cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zenica
Cheapest cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bihac
Cost of the market basket: 51% of the European average
Taxes in Bosnia and herzegovina
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Low
VAT rate: Low

Romania

cost of living in Romania
European ranking countries

Population: 19,622,000
Currency: Leu
GDP per capita: 12,523 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 5
Big Mac Index: —-
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.04 USD
Most expensive cities in Romania: Foc»ôani, Bucarest
Cheapest cities in Romania: T√Ęrgu Mure»ô
Cost of the market basket: 52% of the European average
Taxes in Romania
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: Low

Bulgaria

cost of living in Bulgaria
Europe ranking list countries

Population: 7,050,034
Currency: Lev
GDP per capita: 8,064 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 59
Big Mac Index: 1,88
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.22 USD
Most expensive cities in Bulgaria:Pleven
Cheapest cities in Bulgaria: Burgas
Cost of the market basket: 47% of the European average
Taxes in Bulgaria
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Low
VAT rate: Average

Poland

cost of living in Poland
paises-mas-caros-y-mas-baratos-de-europa

Population: 38,433,600
Currency: Zloty
GDP per capita: 13,822 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 36
Big Mac Index: 2.42
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.82 USD
Most expensive cities in Poland: Warsaw, Kraków and Bielsko-Biala
Cheapest cities in Poland:Rzeszów, Radom and Gorzów Wielkopolski
Cost of the market basket: 55% of the European average
Taxes in Poland
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: High

Belarus

cost of living in Belarus

Population: 9,452,113
Currency: Belarusian Ruble
GDP per capita: 5,760 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 50
Big Mac Index: —–
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.95 USD
Most expensive cities in Belarus: Minsk
Cheapest cities in Belarus: Maladzyechna
Cost of the market basket: —
Taxes in Belarus
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Average
Income tax: Low
VAT rate: High

Montenegro

cost of living in Montenegro

Population: 642,550
Currency: Euro
GDP per capita: 7,647 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 49
Big Mac Index: —-
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.25 USD
Most expensive cities in Montenegro: Budva
Cheapest cities in  Montenegro: Podgorica
Cost of the market basket: 55% of the European average
Taxes in Montenegro
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Low
VAT rate: Low

Hungary

cost of living in Hungary
paises-mas-caros-y-mas-baratos-de-europa

Population: 9,771,000
Currency: Forint
GDP per capita: 15,531 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar)
Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 44
Big Mac Index: 2.71
Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 01.06 USD
Most expensive cities in Hungary : Budapest, Szombathely y Györ
Cheapest cities in Hungary: Kaposvár, Szolnok y Kecskemét
Cost of the market basket: 57% of the European average
Taxes in Hungary
Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given
Corporate tax: Low
Income tax: Average
VAT rate: High
***

Top 10 European countries by GDP 2019

  1. Germany
  2. United Kingdom
  3. France
  4. Italy
  5. Russia
  6. Spain
  7. Netherlands
  8. Switzerland
  9. Sweden
  10. Poland

Source: International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook

Top 10 European countries by GDP per capita 2019

  1. Luxembourg
  2. Ireland
  3. Norway
  4. Switzerland
  5. Netherlands
  6. Iceland
  7. Germany
  8. Denmark
  9. Sweden

Source: International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook

Best European countries for self-employed workers or freelancers

Denmark

You can easily and swiftly register online as a self-employed worker. You don’t have to pay a monthly fee. Income tax ranges from 25% to 50% depending on the type of self-employed worker. Besides, you can benefit from one of the best welfare states in the world, which includes a wide range of social benefits and access to free education.

United Kingdom

If your income is less than ¬£600 (7031‚ā¨), you are free from the obligation to contribute. If you exceed this amount you pay a percentage depending on your profits. There is no such thing as a minimum capital to register a Limited Liability Company, in case you want to start up your own business.

Germany

Self-employed workers have to pay a compulsory health insurance. If your turnover is ‚Č• 1,700‚ā¨ net per month, you must pay a 140‚ā¨ monthly fee. Those who are under 30 years old and those who make less than 1,700‚ā¨ don’t need to pay VAT. The downside is that if you want to start up your own company, it is not cheap (you need to pay 25,000‚ā¨)

Portugal

In Portugal, self-employed workers don’t have to pay a monthly fee. They are not obliged to pay VAT either. It is one of the best countries to be a self-employed worker in Europe.

France

Even though you don’t pay anything during your first year as a self-worker, you are entitled to health care, pension contributions and temporary disability. After the first year, there is a scale stipulating how much a freelancer must pay depending on its income and  work activity. There is no minimum capital required to register a Limited Liability Company.

ūüĎē European Countries T-shirts ūüĎē

Here is a collection of some t-shirts representing European countries. Some of them are amazing and some of them really fun! Click on the shirt or the description below for further details. This section will be regularly updated with new t-shirts.

ūüĎē European Union EU T-shirts

ūüĎē Europe and World map t-shirts

World map t-shirt
World Map Europe t-shirt. Click here!

ūüĎē Germany t-shirts

ūüĎē France t-shirts

ūüĎē UK t-shirts

ūüĎē Italy t-shirt

ūüĎē Spain t-shirt

ūüĎē Russia t-shirt

ūüĎē Poland t-shirt

ūüĎē Sweden t-shirt

ūüĎē Switzerland t-shirt

ūüĎē Norway t-shirt

ūüĎē Portugal t-shirt

ūüĎē Iceland t-shirt

ūüĎē Denmark t-shirt

ūüĎē Luxembourg t-shirt

ūüĎē Finland t-shirt

ūüĎē Belgium t-shirt

ūüĎē Netherlands t-shirt

ūüĎē Greece t-shirts

ūüĎē Ireland t-shirts

ūüĎē Romania t-shirt

ūüĎē Chech Republic t-shirt

ūüĎē Slovakia t-shirt

ūüĎē Croatia t-shirt

ūüĎē Moldavia t-shirt

ūüĎē Ukraine t-shirt

ūüĎē Bulgaria t-shirt

ūüĎē Belarus t-shirt

ūüĎē Serbia t-shirt

ūüĎē Albania t-shirt

ūüĎē Montenegro t-shirt

ūüĎē North Macedonia t-shirt

ūüĎē Bosnia and Herzegovina t-shirt

ūüĎē Austria t-shirt

ūüĎē Hungary t-shirt

ūüĎē Kosovo t-shirt

ūüĎē Slovenia t-shirt

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Explanation of the parameters used in this ranking

Most expensive and cheapest countries in Europe Cost of living in Europe
In red: most expensive countries    In blue: cheapest countries
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GDP per capita is a measure that divides the country’s gross domestic product (its economic output) by its total population.

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index of life expectancy, educational standards, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

Big Mac Index: The Big Mac Index, published by The Economist magazine, althought not perfect, is useful to measure the purchasing power parity (PPP) between countries and currencies. It uses the price of the famous hamburger as a benchmark. It somehow replaces the shopping basket with the famous hamburger.

Market basket: In an economic sense, a market basket is a permanent set of goods and services that are bought and sold as staples in a functional economy.  So it is is a fixed list of items, in given proportions, used specifically to track the progress of inflation in an economy.

I picked one kilo of white rice among  all the products which are representative of the cost of living because it is a minimally-processed staple food, so there is no need for a large number of productive factors as, for instance, a car.

Sources: Eurostat, Forbes, The Economist, statista.com, preciosmundo.com, Expatistan, bigmacindex.org, Numbeo.com

See also:

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Mejores ciudades donde vivir

Mejores ciudades para vivir como expatriado

√Čstas son algunas de las destinaciones de ensue√Īo, de acuerdo con cuatro¬†rotativos importantes (The Sunday Times, The Economist, Business Insider y Forbes). Aunque como suele decirse, sobre gustos, colores: a algun@s les gustar√° m√°s una destinaci√≥n y a otr@s, otra. As√≠ que te animo a apuntar tu favorita y los motivos que te han hecho escogerla. Tras algunas valoraciones por mi parte, doy paso a los distintos rankings de dichas publicaciones.

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A¬†un traductor, el hecho de vivir en otro pa√≠s, le da la oportunidad de aprender o mejorar sus competencias ling√ľ√≠isticas, a parte de vivir una experiencia diferente. Supongo que lo mejor, antes de optar por vivir en otra ciudad, es pasar una temporada en el lugar y, en funci√≥n de como un@ se siente, quedarse… o no.

Una de las ventajas que tiene ser traductor freelance o aut√≥nomo es que puedes vivir en diferentes lugares sin necesidad de cambiar de trabajo. Eso s√≠: debes tener una buena conexi√≥n a internet. Yo mismo he vivido un tiempo ¬†en Londres, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Edimburgo en el Reino Unido, en Ankara, en Turqu√≠a y en Barcelona, en Espa√Īa…

En Espa√Īa

Y la verdad es que Barcelona me sigue pareciendo un muy buen destino para un expat. No es de extra√Īar que tantos franceses, brit√°nicos, alemanes, norteamericanos, italianos, rusos… hayan escogido esta ciudad. Es una ciudad muy europea, muy cosmopolita. Una de las m√°s visitadas del mundo. Tiene mar, monta√Īa, cocina mediterr√°nea, un clima agradable, diversidad de ambientes,.. Y cierta magia. Pero sobre todo una mentalidad muy liberal (por lo que¬†tambi√©n es uno de los destinos preferidos de muchos artistas y de la comunidad gay). Tambi√©n es cierto que, por estos mismos motivos, tanta presi√≥n tur√≠stica ha hecho que varios ciudadanos expresen un cierto malestar respecto a esta masificaci√≥n.

En Madrid tambi√©n se respira un ambiente liberal, y aunque no tiene mar, para todas aquellas aves nocturnas y fiesteras, es importante mencionar¬†que la noche madrile√Īa supera a la barcelonesa (que ya de por s√≠ no est√° mal). La movida sigue viva. En general, tanto Madrid como Barcelona ofrecen m√°s oportunidades de encontrar trabajo, aunque esto no deber√≠a importarle a un traductor aut√≥nomo que trabaja con agencias y clientes finales de todo el mundo.

En general,¬†el hecho -que a muchos pasa desapercibido- de poder moverte por la ciudad en bicicleta, es un buen indicador de la calidad de vida, porque implica varios factores¬†(civismo, clima benigno, conciencia urban√≠stica y ecol√≥gica…)

Tambi√©n Valencia y M√°laga, me parecen buenas opciones, con un agradable¬†clima mediterr√°neo, buena cocina, mucha “vidilla” y ¬†concebidas a escala humana.




Algunos compa√Īeros traductores¬†¬†tambi√©n hablan muy bien de las islas Canarias, como un remanso de paz, un clima apacible todo el a√Īo, buena comida y una gente encantadora. Respecto a Palma de Mallorca, Madrid o Barcelona,¬†cuenta con¬†la ventaja de tener un coste de la vida inferior.

Pero veamos cu√°les son las mejores ciudades seg√ļn los rotativos mencionados al principio. Estos rankings se han confeccionado tomando en consideraci√≥n factores como el coste de la vida, la contaminaci√≥n, la comida, el transporte, el clima, la educaci√≥n o la seguridad.

La mejor ciudad del mundo para vivir est√° en Espa√Īa, seg√ļn The Sunday Times

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Pero -y me disculpo de antemano por el juego de palabras- la palma se la lleva otra ciudad: el famoso rotativo inglés The Sunday Times ha escogido Palma de Mallorca ni más ni menos que como la mejor ciudad del mundo para vivir en su ranking del 2015. Aunque no era una elección evidente, su atractivo es indudable.

Seg√ļn el rotativo ingl√©s, el ranking quedar√≠a as√≠:

1. Palma de Mallorca (Espa√Īa)

2. Toronto (Canadá)

3. Auckland (Nueva Zelanda)

4. Hoi An (Vietnam)

5 Berlin (Alemania)

… ¬ŅY qu√© dice The Economist?

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Se ha hablado mucho sobre cuáles son los mejores países, las mejores ciudades para vivir como expatriado, y son varias las publicaciones que elaboran sus propios ránkings.  

Por ejemplo, la revista de negocios The Economist elabor√≥ su cl√°sico listado anual de las mejores y peores ciudades para vivir. Seg√ļn su clasificaci√≥n, la mejor no est√° ni en EEUU ni en Europa.

Seg√ļn the Economist, la lista mundial de 140 ciudades, est√° liderada por quinto a√Īo consecutivo por la ciudad australiana de

1. Melbourne (97,5%).

En segunda posición se encontraría

2. Viena (Austria),

seguida de

3. Vancouver (Canad√°),

4.Toronto (Canad√°),

5.Calgary (Canad√°),

6.Adelaide (Australia),

7.Sydney (Australia),

8.Perth (Australia),

9.Auckland (Nueva Zelanda),

10. Helsinki (Finlandia) y Zurich (Suiza) [empate técnico]

Buenos Aires (Argentina), Santiago (Chile) y San Juan (Puerto Rico) son las mejores ciudades latinoamericanas para vivir, seg√ļn el¬†informe publicado por The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), la unidad de negocios del grupo brit√°nico The Economist.

“Las ciudades latinoamericanas obtienen una buena¬†puntuaci√≥n en materia de cultura y medio ambiente, pero no tanto en estabilidad y seguridad. Argentina, Brasil y Venezuela han sufrido disturbios relacionados con su dif√≠cil situaci√≥n econ√≥mica”, explic√≥ a la agencia EFE Jon Copestake, de EIU.

Las urbes¬†que han sacado mejor puntuaci√≥n¬†suelen ser localidades de tama√Īo medio en pa√≠ses ricos con una densidad de poblaci√≥n baja, indic√≥ el informe.

La opinión de Business Insider

Seg√ļn otro r√°nking, el del Business Insider, la clasificaci√≥n ser√≠a como sigue:

Badge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize icon

1.Viena (Austria),

2.Helsinki (Finlandia)

3.Zurich (Suiza)

4.Génova (Italia)

5.Hamburgo (Alemania)

6.Frankfurt (Alemania)

7.Berlín (Alemania)

8.Copenhaguen (Dinamarca)

9.Oslo (Noruega)

10.Estocolmo (Suecia)

Forbes

Y las mejores ciudades en Estados Unidos para “formar una familia”, seg√ļn la publicaci√≥n Forbes, ser√≠an:

Badge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize iconBadge Prize icon

1. Grand Rapids, Michigan

2. Boise, Idaho

3. Provo, Utah

4. Youngstown, Ohio

5. Raleigh, North Carolina

6. Poughkeepsie, Nueva York

7. Omaha, Nebraska

8. Ogden, Utah

9. Cincinatti, Ohio

10. Worcester, Massachusetts

Clica en la car√°tula para m√°s detalles.

Si te ha interesado este post, quiz√°s te interesar√°: Ciudades m√°s caras y m√°s baratas de Europa donde vivir

 

cosas para traductores ideas para regalar

Artículos recomendados:

By Financial Tranlsator

 

Comparativa entre libros electrónicos kindle de Amazon

Kindle, Kindle paperwhite y kindle voyage

Los traductores, filólogos, profesionales de la lengua en general, nos volvemos un poco locos con los libros electrónicos. Están transformando para bien (ahorro enorme en papel, más respetuosos con el medio ambiente, democratización de la edición sin pasar por la, a menudo, alienante industria editorial), o para mal (implica un cambio radical, incluso dramático, en dicha industria).

Hoy vamos a comparar tres libros electr√≥nicos de Amazon Kindle: el Kindle de toda la vida, el kindle paperwhite y el kindle voyage; prestando especial atenci√≥n a este √ļltimo.

Con el Kindle Voyage, Amazon ha incorporado una interesante novedad con luz adaptativa, un nuevo modo de pasar las páginas llamado PagePress, que te permite pasar página con una ligera presión en dos sensores alargados situados en el marco lateral de la pantalla, un procesador un 20% más rápido, mejor resolución de pantalla a 300ppi y 4GB de almacenamiento.

kindle voyage

Estos son los tres modelos de Kindle disponibles. Actualmente en Espa√Īa podemos encontrar el nuevo modelo de Kindle con pantalla t√°ctil de 79 euros, el Kindle Paperwhite WIFI y 3G (2015) con pantalla de 300ppp y ¬†el Kindle Voyage.

Comparación entre Kindle, Kindle Paperwhite y Kindle Voyage

Haz clic en las imágenes de los libros electrónicos para más información.

 Kindle  Kindle Paperwhite  Kindle Voyage
KINDLE KINDLE PAPERWHITE 2015 KINDLE VOYAGE
PRECIO 79.99 euros 129.99 euros (WIFI) 189.99 euros (WIFI)
COMPRAR EN AMAZON COMPRAR EN AMAZON COMPRAR EN AMAZON COMPRAR EN AMAZON
TAMA√ĎO PANTALLA 6‚Ä≥ 6‚Ä≥ 6‚Ä≥
PANTALLA SIN REFLEJOS SI SI SI
CON LUZ No SI SI + sensor adaptativo de luz
PASO DE PAGINAS Tocando en la pantalla Tocando en la pantalla Tocando en la pantalla + PagePress
RESOLUCI√ďN 167 ppi 300 ppi 300 ppi
CONECTIVIDAD Wi-Fi Wi-Fi o
Wi-Fi + 3G
Wi-Fi o
Wi-Fi + 3G
DURACI√ďN BATER√ćA 4 semanas 8 semanas 8 semanas
ALMACENAMIENTO 4GB 4GB 4GB
PESO 191 gramos Wi-Fi: 205 gramos
Wi-Fi + 3G: 217 gramos
Wi-Fi: 180 gramos
Wi-Fi + 3G: 188 gramos
DIMENSIONES 169 x 119 x 10.2 mm 169 x 117 x 9.1 mm 162 x 115 x 7.6 mm
 FORMATOS ACEPTADOS Kindle Format 8 (AZW3), Kindle (AZW), TXT, PDF, MOBI, PRC; HTML, DOC, DOCX, JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP  Kindle Format 8 (AZW3), Kindle (AZW), TXT, PDF, MOBI, PRC; HTML, DOC, DOCX, JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP Kindle Format 8 (AZW3), Kindle (AZW), TXT, PDF, MOBI, PRC; HTML, DOC, DOCX, JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP


Clica en la imagen para más información sobre el kindle voyage

kindle voyage

Ver también:

Teo-Ría del lenguaje: Chistes para filólogos, traductores y profesores de idiomas 
Nohay Chomskies
EUR 2,99

 

 

Financial Translator

Traducción financiera

Palma de Mallorca, the best place to live according to the Sunday Times

Palma de Mallorca voted best city to live in the world

Maybe some freelance translators considering to establish abroad can find it interesting. If you like to travel, you can easily work as a freelance translator from anywhere in the world while living a new experience and improving your languages skills. Of course this kind of rankings are always relative and subjective, but at least they can give you some ideas and inspiration.



Palma de Mallorca tops the list of the 50 best cities on the planet to live in. The annual ranking by the Sunday Times hoists the Mallorcan capital to first place counting criteria such as environment, climate and quality of life,  close to Es Trenc, a beach with Caribbean air, the luxurious Port of Andratx and the mountainous area of Deià.

As the journalist puts it, Palma de Mallorca is “a small city which has everything, situated on a lovely island.”

This puts the island capital ahead of major cities such as 2. Toronto (Canada), 3. Auckland (New Zealand), 4. Hoi An (Vietnam) and 5 Berlin (Germany) which are among the top five places to live.

Palma de Mallorca best city

Palma (/ňąp…Ďňźlm…ô/ or /ňąp…Ďňźm…ô/, Catalan:¬†[ňąpalm…ô], Spanish:¬†[ňąpalma]), in full Palma de Mallorca,¬†¬†is the capital and largest city of theautonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.[3] It is situated on the south coast of the island Majorca on the Bay of Palma. As of the 2009 census, the population of the city of Palma proper was 401,270, and the population of the entire urban area was 621,000,¬†ranking as the twelfth largest urban area of Spain. Almost half of the total population of Majorca live in Palma. The Cabrera Archipelago, though widely separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. Its airport, Son Sant Joan, serves over 22 million passengers each year. The Marivent Palace was offered by the city to the then Prince Juan Carlos I of Spain. The royals have since spent their summer holidays in Palma.

Local News on the publication of the Ranking


Link to the Sunday Times

Cost of living in Palma de Mallorca

Featured post image: :¬†Platja de Palma in S’Arenal, Palma, Spain (cc

Financial Translator Traducción Financiera

Valoraciones de los alumnos del curso de traducción financiera

Muchas gracias a todos los alumnos que particip√°is en el curso de Traducci√≥n Financiera del ingl√©s al espa√Īol. ¬°Ya somos casi 80 inscritos! Agradezco de todo coraz√≥n vuestros comentarios, que para mi son un gran espaldarazo para hacerlo cada d√≠a mejor.

En el curso en inglés Marketing for translators  ya se han inscrito 125 alumnos (¡y subiendo!), superando todas las expectativas.

Animo a todos y a todas a seguir especializ√°ndose en la traducci√≥n financiera y a ser persistentes y tenaces en vuestras campa√Īas de marketing.

Muchas gracias de nuevo

Marcel Solé

Courses for translators and interpreters

By: Traducción Financiera

 

Las 10 empresas que m√°s dinero ganan con la guerra

EL GRAN NEGOCIO DE LA GUERRA O COMO LUCRARSE CON EL DINERO DEL CONTRIBUYENTE Nos encontramos aqu√≠ con uno de los rankings m√°s vergonzosos. Las armas mueven una cantidad de dinero enorme, pero no es f√°cil encontrar informaci√≥n porque este negocio, de hecho, se financia en gran medida con dinero del contribuyente,¬†de ah√≠ que exista una correlaci√≥n muy preocupante entre deuda soberana y gasto en armamento.¬† El Stockolm Peace Research Institute ha publicado el Top 100 de las empresas armament√≠sticas que m√°s facturaron en 2011 en el mundo, excluyendo China. Cada vez que hay una guerra, unos pocos se enriquecen inconmensurablemente con dinero del contribuyente. Despu√©s vemos fotos terribles de cientos de ni√Īos sirios o africanos muertos. La informaci√≥n es muy dif√≠cil de obtener, pero los pa√≠ses que dedican m√°s dinero (en tanto por ciento sobre el total mundial de gasto en armamento) son, por este orden:

  1. EEUU 46%
  2. China 7%
  3. Francia 4%
  4. Reino Unido 4%
  5. Rusia 4%
  6. Resto del mundo 35%

Las 100 mayores empresas de armamento y equipamiento b√©lico facturaron¬†465.770 millones de d√≥lares en 2011. ¬†Desde el 2006 las ventas de este tipo de empresas, ajenas a la crisis, por lo que se ve, se han disparado un 60%. Sin saberlo, el contribuyente es el m√°ximo financiador de este tipo de empresas. No es de extra√Īar que exista una correlaci√≥n entre deuda p√ļblica y gasto miliar (por ejemplo, la deuda p√ļblica de EEUU equivale al 45% de la deuda p√ļblica mundial, ¬†la de Francia, al 4%, la del Reino Unido, al 6%…)¬†Lockheed Martin , Boeing, BAE Systems,¬†Raytheon, EADS … son empresas destacadas del gran negocio de la guerra. La primera empresa espa√Īola que encontramos por ventas es CASA (EADS, trans-European)

Inicio¬†Consecuencias de la Guerra (Matanza de ni√Īos en Siria)

Inicio

Ayuda para los refugiados sirios (p√°gina UNICEF)

Fuente: SIPRI

Ranking Empresa País Sector Venta de armas (US$ m.) Ventas totales, 2011 (US$ m.) venta de armas como % de las ventas totales, 2011 (%) Beneficios totales, 2011 (US$ m.) Trabajadores, 2011
2011 2010 2011 2010
1 1 Lockheed Martin United States Aeronaves, Electrónica, Misiles, Espacio 36 270 35 730 46 499 78 2 655 123 000
2 3 Boeing United States Aeronaves, Electrónica, Misiles, espacio 31 830 31 360 68 735 46 4 018 171 700
3 2 BAE Systems United Kingdom Aeronaves, Artiller√≠a, Electr√≥nica, veh√≠culos militares,¬†Misiles,peque√Īas armas/munici√≥n, barcos 29 150 32¬†880 30 689 95 2¬†349 93¬†500
4 5 General Dynamics United States Artillery, Electr√≥nica, Military vehicles, armas peque√Īas/munici√≥n, barcos 23¬†760 23¬†940 32¬†677 73 2¬†526 95¬†100
5 6 Raytheon United States Electrónica, Misiles 22 470 22 980 24 857 90 1 896 71 000
6 4 Northrop Grumman United States Aeronaves, Electrónica, Misiles, barcosd, espacio 21 390 28 150 26 412 81 2 118 72 500
7 7 EADS Trans-European Aeronaves, Electrónica, Misiles, espacio 16 390 16 360 68 295 24 1 442 133 120
8 8 Finmeccanica Italy Aeronaves, Artiller√≠a, Electr√≥nica, Militar veh√≠culos,¬†Misiles, peque√Īas armas/munici√≥n 14 560 14¬†410 24¬†074 60 -3 206 70¬†470
S S BAE Systems Inc. (BAE Systems, UK) United States Artiller√≠a, Electr√≥nica, veh√≠culos militares, armas peque√Īas/munici√≥n 13¬†560 17¬†900 14¬†417 94 5 178 37 300
9 9 L-3 Communications United States Electrónica 12 520 13 070 15 169 83 956 61 000
10 10 United Technologies United States Aeronaves, Electrónica, Motores 11 640 11 410 58 190 20 5 347 199 900
11 11 Thales France Electr√≥nica,¬†Military veh√≠culos,¬†Missiles, armas peque√Īas/munici√≥n 9¬†480 9¬†950 18¬†111 52 787 68¬†330
12 12 SAIC United States Componentes (vehículos militares), Servicios 7 940 8 230 10 587 75 56 41 100
13 ¬†‚Äď Huntington Ingalls Industries United States Barcos 6¬†380 ‚Äď 6¬†575 97 ‚Äď94 38 000
14 15 Honeywell United States Electrónica 5 280 5 400 36 529 14 2 067 132 000
15 16 Safran France Electrónica 5 240 4 800 16 315 32 895 59 800
S S Sikorsky (United Technologies) United States Aeronaves 4 970 4 530 7 655 65 840 17 780
16 14 Computer Sciences Corp. United States Servicios 4¬†860 5¬†940 15¬†877 31 ‚Äď4 225 98¬†000
17 17 Rolls-Royce United Kingdom Motores 4 670 4 330 18 068 26 1 854 40 400
18 21 United Aircraft Corp.[d] Russia Aeronaves 4 440 3 440 5 502 80 404 97 500
19 13 Oshkosh Truck United States vehículos militares 4 370 7 080 7 585 58 273 13 100
S S MBDA (BAE Systems, UK/EADS, trans-European/Finmeccanica, Italy) Trans-European Misiles 4 170 3 710 4 170 100 227 9 850
20 18 General Electric United States Motores 4 100 4 300 147 300 3 14 151 301 000
21 19 ITT Exelis[e] United States Electrónica 4 020 4 000 5 839 69 326 20 500
S S CASA (EADS, trans-European) Spain Aeronaves 3 940 . . 4 332 91 132 6 980
S S Pratt & Whitney (United Technologies) United States Motores 3 700 4 080 13 430 28 1 999 35 870
22 20 Almaz-Antei[d] Russia Misiles 3 690 3 950 4 337 85 32 93 280
23 25 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries[g] Japan Aeropnaves, vehículos militares, Misiles, barcos 3 620 2 960 35 347 10 307 68 890
24 22 DCNS France Barcos 3 610 3 320 3 614 100 249 12 830
S S Eurocopter Group (EADS, trans-European) France Aeronaves 3 540 2 940 7 528 47 359 20 800

  Guerra y negocios

Ethica: ¬†Juego de mesa basado en las finanzas √©ticas.¬†Ethica es el √ļnico juego en tratar la tem√°tica bancaria y financiera que posee la certificaci√≥n del PFEG (Personal Finance Education Group).¬†Ethica explora el impacto social y ambiental de las actividades bancarias, inversiones y negocios. Tambi√©n ayuda a las personas a tomar decisiones m√°s responsables y √©ticas en la gesti√≥n de su propio dinero. Ethica desaf√≠a a los estudiantes a considerar la tensi√≥n entre el beneficio y la responsabilidad social y ambiental. Visto como est√° el patio, no deber√≠a faltar en ninguna escuela. juego de mesa Ethica finanzas √©ticas

Finanzas
Blog de traducción financiera

Las mejores agencias de traducción

Mejores agencias de Traducción

Sports Trophy iconSports Trophy iconSports Trophy icon

√Čsta es la lista ¬†de las mejores agencias de traducci√≥n, teniendo en cuenta el trato que dispensan a los trabajadores y a sus clientes, y ¬†procede de ¬†tres fuentes:¬†Translators Caf√© , las valoraciones de los traductores en Proz blue board, y de las aportaciones de los lectores del blog www.financial-translator.com . Si deseas hacer alguna aportaci√≥n, incorporar alguna agencia a la lista, etc. ser√° tomado muy en cuenta.
*
Huelga decir que es muy probable que una agencia de traducción que trata debidamente a sus traductores (ya sean internos o externos) también proporcione un servicio de calidad a sus clientes. Por lo tanto, animo a todas las empresas que contratan servicios de traducción a una agencia, a que valoren este aspecto como uno de los más importantes, ya que realmente dice mucho de la praxis de la agencia.
*
También incluyo el enlace de Proz Blue Board, donde podréis encontrar valoraciones de las agencias realizadas por los mismos traductores. Si tenéis alguna sugerencia, alguna buena experiencia, la podéis compartir en comentarios.
mejores agencias
M√°s abajo pod√©is encontrar enlaces interesantes para traductores e int√©rpretes: lista de asociaciones de Traductores e int√©rpretes, ¬†lista de pel√≠culas sobre traductores e int√©rpretes, formaci√≥n para traductores, humor para traductores (¬°no os lo perd√°is!), recursos…
***
  • ALS ¬†‚úď
Fuente: Translators Café y aportaciones de los lectores, Proz Blue Board
***

Links interesantes para traductores e intérpretes:


Lista de Asociaciones de Traductores e Intérpretes




Financial Translator

Traducción financiera

Lista Forbes de los más ricos del mundo 2013 (Billón anglosajón y billón europeo)

BROWSE THE LIST Net Worth Calculated March 2013.

Puesto Nombre Patrimonio neto en Billones USA (ver abajo) Edad Fuente Nacionalidad
1

Carlos Slim Helu & family

$73 B 73 Telecom Mexico
2

Bill Gates

$67 B 57 Microsoft Estados Unidos
3

Amancio Ortega

$57 B 77 Zara Espa√Īa
4

Warren Buffett

$53,5 B 83 Berkshire Hathaway Estados Unidos
5

Larry Ellison

$43 B 69 Oracle Estados Unidos
6

Charles Koch

$34 B 77 Diversificado Estados Unidos
6

David Koch

$34 B 73 Diversificado Estados Unidos
8

Li Ka-shing

$31 B 85 Diversificado Hong Kong
9

Liliane Bettencourt & family

$30 B 90 L’Oreal Francia
10

Bernard Arnault & family

$29 B 64 LVMH Francia
11

Christy Walton & family

$28,2 B 58 Wal-Mart Estados Unidos
12

Stefan Persson

$28 B 65 H&M Suecia
13

Michael Bloomberg

$27 B 71 Bloomberg LP Estados Unidos
14

Jim Walton

$26,7 B 65 Wal-Mart Estados Unidos
15

Sheldon Adelson

$26,5 B 80 Casinos Estados Unidos
16

Alice Walton

$26,3 B 63 Wal-Mart Estados Unidos
17

S. Robson Walton

$26,1 B 69 Wal-Mart Estados Unidos
18

Karl Albrecht

$26 B 93 Aldi Alemania
19

Jeff Bezos

$25,2 B 49 Amazon.com Estados Unidos
20

Larry Page

$23 B 40 Google Estados Unidos
21

Sergey Brin

$22,8 B 40 Google Estados Unidos
22

Mukesh Ambani

$21,5 B 56 Petroquímica, gas India
23

Michele Ferrero & family

$20,4 B 88 Chocolates Italia
24

Lee Shau Kee

$20,3 B 85 Diversificado Hong Kong
24

David Thomson & family

$20,3 B 56 Media Canad√°
26

Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Alsaud

$20 B 58 inversión Arabia Saudita
26

Carl Icahn

$20 B 77 Compras apalancadas Estados Unidos
26

Thomas & Raymond Kwok & family

$20 B Inmobiliario Hong Kong
29

Dieter Schwarz

$19,5 B 73 Venta al detalle Alemania
30

George Soros

$19,2 B 83 Fondos de cobertura Estados Unidos
31

Theo Albrecht, Jr. & family

$18,9 B 62 Aldi, Trader Joe’s Alemania
32

Alberto Bailleres Gonzalez & family

$18,2 B 82 Minería Mexico
33

Jorge Paulo Lemann

$17,8 B 74 Cerveza Brasil
34

Alisher Usmanov

$17,6 B 59 Acero, telecomunicaciones, inversión Rusia
35

Iris Fontbona & family

$17,4 B 70 Minería Chile
36

Forrest Mars, Jr.

$17 B 82 Dulces Estados Unidos
36

Jacqueline Mars

$17 B 73 Dulces Estados Unidos
36

John Mars

$17 B 77 Dulces Estados Unidos
36

Georgina Rinehart

$17 B 59 Minería Australia
40

German Larrea Mota Velasco & family

$16,7 B 59 Minería Mexico
41

Mikhail Fridman

$16,5 B 49 Petróleo, banca, telecomunicaciones Rusia
41

Lakshmi Mittal

$16,5 B 63 Acero India
43

Aliko Dangote

$16,1 B 56 Cemento, az√ļcar, harina Nigeria
44

Len Blavatnik

$16 B 56 Diversificado Estados Unidos
44

Cheng Yu-tung

$16 B 88 Diversificado Hong Kong
46

Joseph Safra

$15,9 B 74 Banca Brasil
47

Rinat Akhmetov

$15,4 B 46 Acero, carbón Ucrania
47

Leonid Mikhelson

$15,4 B 58 Gas, chemicals Rusia
49

Leonardo Del Vecchio

$15,3 B 78 Eyeglasses Italia
49

Michael Dell

$15,3 B 48 Dell Estados Unidos
50

Steve Ballmer

$15,2 B 57 Microsoft Estados Unidos
 Fuente: http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/
  • Errores frecuentes de traducci√≥n

Billón anglosajón y billón europeo continental

Se suelen cometer errores al traducir art√≠culos del¬†ingl√©s¬†a otros idiomas. Incluso los propios¬†brit√°nicos¬†pueden llegar a desconocer si en un texto en¬†ingl√©s¬†billion¬†se refiere a ¬ęmil millones¬Ľ o a un ¬ęmill√≥n de millones¬Ľ, ya que ambos usos coexisten a√ļn en la actualidad. No obstante, con el paso de los a√Īos -y debido en gran medida a la creciente influencia estadounidense- el primero se ha vuelto bastante dominante en el¬†Reino Unido, frente a la franca decadencia del segundo, hasta el punto de considerarse oficial en 1974.

Un an√°logo error suele surgir cuando se traduce el n√ļmero¬†trillion. Por ejemplo, el¬†PIB¬†de los¬†Estados Unidos, que en ingl√©s (sobre todo norteamericano) es de unos¬†15 trillion US dollars, corresponde a ¬ęs√≥lo¬Ľ 15 billones de d√≥lares en¬†espa√Īol,¬†franc√©s,¬†italiano,¬†sueco¬†y otros idiomas (aunque, por supuesto, ambas denominaciones se refieren exactamente a la misma cifra, 15¬∑1012).

A instancias del expresidente¬†venezolano¬†Rafael Caldera, la¬†Real Academia Espa√Īola¬†decidi√≥ crear la palabra ¬ęmillardo¬Ľ¬†con el significado de “mil millones”, similar a la ya existente en franc√©s e italiano, para as√≠ intentar facilitar la traducci√≥n de la palabra¬†billion¬†encontrada en los libros y obras escritos en ingl√©s norteamericano. No obstante, el t√©rmino ¬ęmillardo¬Ľ no suele ser muy usado en¬†Am√©rica Latina, a excepci√≥n de la propia¬†Venezuela.