Which city deserves to be the Capital of the world?
If an alien asked you “What is the capital of your planet?”, what would you answer?
Off the top of your head, you would probably consider the following options:
New York, Washington D.C., London, Montreal, Paris, Berlin, Brussels (capital of the EU), Rome, Bern, Stockholm,Moscow, Istanbul (a bridge between the Western and Muslim worlds), Mumbai , Delhi , Shanghai, Beijing, Tokyo, Sydney, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Mexico city, Lagos, Cairo, Alexandriaor even Miami (a city that brings Latin and North American cultures together).
What does google say?
Then you would probably google: “What is the capital of the world?” or “What is the capital of the planet Earth?”. The answer would be clear: London, in UK, is the world’s capital.
In all likelihood, you would take history into consideration, and assume that in ancient times it was Babylon, Athens, Memphis in Ancient Egypt, Rome for the Roman Empire, or Karakorum (the ancient capital of the Mongol Empire), or even Toledo (the capital city of Spain at the height of its empire), Constantinople for the Ottoman empire, or Paris, the city of lights and, for many, the quintessential European city… or even Buenos Aires (which was a rich city in times gone by) and of course London for the British Empire.
If you care about fundamental rights and democratic values standards (e.g. fulfilment of human and civil rights, separation of powers, participation processes…), then you could sift through your results and would probably end up choosing an European or North-American city, depending on what you rank higher: social justice or economic freedom.
The language perspective
Needless to say, language is a key factor when deciding on this issue. The most languages represented in the city, the higher it ranks as the capital of the world. The official language of the city is also a key factor. As we saw on “10 most useful languages according to the World Economic Forum“, English is the current international language, and it is very likely that it will continue to be in the foreseeable future. So it is a central element that can’t go unnoticed. The top 10 languages in the world by number of speakers are 1. Mandarin Chinese 2. Spanish 3. English 4. Hindi 5. Arabic 6.French 7. Portuguese 8. Bengali 9. Russian and 10. Indonesian. But as we saw on the aforementioned post, it doesn’t necessarily mean that these are the most influential.
What about New York?
Even though it is not even the capital of the United States, New York is an obvious candidate, because it boasts an important number of international institutions (most notably the United Nations Headquarters and the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation), Wall Street and so many people from so many different countries live there… The downside is that it is a major city of a superpower and it would be hard to reach a consensus.
What about Paris?
Paris is another obvious candidate. Institutions like the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) have their headquarters in the city of lights. According to the World Economic Forum, French is still one of the most influential languages in the world, specially for diplomacy, and it is, along with Venice, the most romantic city in the world.
What about the capital of a small country?
If you thought outside the box before answering the question, you might consider a city from a small or medium-sized country, since it would be way easier to reach an international consensus (see position 10 in the ranking below). Cities like Brussels, Singapore, Wellington, Lima, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Montevideo, Vienna, Asuncion, Bern, Doha… could be perfect hosts for a hypothetical world government.
This is the capital of the world
Finally, the moment that we were waiting for… (drum roll). With a population of 8,136 million, London is the most cosmopolitan city in the world, a real melting pot of ethnicities, languages and cultures, with English as the official language, home of Amnesty International, the Commonwealth of Nations, the International Maritime Organization, the Bank of England, the Socialist International, HSBC, Barclays, the city where so many world-famous writers set so many novels and stories, one of the world’s capitals of digital media and, to top it off, one of the world’s financial capitals… In a sense, although it’s one of a kind, it is also the bridge between North-America and Europe. Furthermore, it probably builds a robuster consensus than New York or Shanghai. It is a vibrant and dynamic city. As Dr. Samuel Johnson put it ” When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life”.
… But this could change overnight
However, London could lose the first position on the list after Brexit. Very likely, indeed. Many argue that Britain shot itself in the foot and that it will hurt it in many ways and at many levels, though whether Brits will find a way to roll with the punches and finally succeed making a virtue out of necessity, it remains to be seen. What does look pretty obvious is that London — starting with the City — will lose power and influence. Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Berlin may be the first to profit from this circumstance in the European Union, New York in America, and Shanghai in Asia. So this ranking is subject to changes.
Top 10 candidates
The following cities have been ranked according to a number of items, such as population, influence in diplomacy and politics, economy and finance, history, current and future prospects, democratic standards, degree of consensus on their candidacy, international institutions headquarters, historical factors, environmental awareness, geostrategic situation, languages represented, influence of its official language, state of development of the IT industry… among 30 other factors.
The capital of a small country (Brussels, Singapore, Wellington, Copenhaguen, Montevideo, Vienna, Asuncion, Bern, Doha…)
So give your two cents! What do you think should be the capital of the world?
Here are what I consider the 10 best cryptocurrencies in 2019 and most probably in the following years. I wrote earlier about Dash, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, IOTA, Blockchain technology and how to buy cryptocurrencies on this blog. There are currently over 1400 cryptocurrencies, and sifting through them is not plain sailing, so this post will be regularly updated.
If you have reached this post, you may be wondering which is the best cryptocurrency to invest in, so I decided to offer a ranking for all those who are thinking of betting on the most fashionable currencies. First of all, I must say that I do not recommend investing more than 5% of your income, since the fluctuations in these markets are as usual as unexpected. My second advice is not to go crazy about the ups and downs and try to focus on the mid and long run. The crypto market is swings and roundabouts, so don’t panic. Keep calm and don’t invest more than 5% of your income. And finally, I would recommend to bet a little on the two big fishes (Bitcoin and Ethereum) and diversify the rest in other promising currencies. So you better don’t put all your eggs in one basket.
As I see it, there is an unwritten rule, a historical constant which proves over and over again that the most advanced technology always ends up winning out over the obselete one. Blockchain technology on which these cryptos are based is way more advanced and efficient than the old-fashioned fiat money, which could become obsolete in the next decade. Stranger things have happened.
Criteria applied in this ranking
Criteria: I personally attach great importance to the project offering some innovation, some added value —you can find out about it by reading the white paper—. However, the size of the cryptocurrency’s community, the money supply —so that you can weight up whether a given cryptocurrency is attractive for mining or not—, the team of developers behind and their dedication to the project —full or partial—, its country of origin, the exchanges in which it is quoted, whether it is little or very decentralized and, of course, its price-performance ratio so far…. are all good benchmarks when it comes to evaluate and compare them.
Cryptocurrencies by market capitalisation
By market capitalization, that is to say, by the price of the cryptocurrency multiplied by the number of coins in circulation, it is obvious that Bitcoin is still ahead of the curve, without any other coin shadowing it. Ether (Ethereum’s cryptocurrency) is back in the second position, and Ripple is third, Bitcoin Cash features in fourth position, Litecoin (5th), EOS (6th) and Binance coin (7th). In fact, the second largest group would comprise all the other altcoins except Bitcoin and Ether. Market capitalization also indicates the assets available for the purchase and active sale of cryptocurrencies in exchanges.
Bitcoin, with a market capitalization of around $142,520,106,909
Ethereum, with a market capitalization of around $26,643,966,096
XRP, with a market capitalization of around $17,649,693,244
Bitcoin Cash, with a market capitalization of around $7,071,407,437
Litecoin, with a market capitalization of around $6,569,571,432
EOS, with a market capitalization of around $6,285,351,420
Binance Coin, with a market capitalization of around $4,429,651,223
Bitcoin SV, with a market capitalization of around $4,127,066,751
Tether, with a market capitalization of around $3,127,671,181
Stellar, with a market capitalization of around $2,429,528,729
Starting with the most consolidated cryptos and ending with the not so famous but very promising ones (for a number of reasons):
#1 It is my favorite due to the technology Ethereum it is based on. For many —including myself — it is the most robust and innovative platform of the blockchain technology. It still seems to have a lot of room for growth. Within the crypto currencies it is one of the safest bets and the blockchain that offers the most applications with its smart contracts. Giants like Microsoft and JP Morgan are already using Ethereum technology. The most visible reference of Ethereum is Vitalik Buterin, its co-founder. Even though Ripple overtook it by the end of 2017 in terms of market capitalization, if both Ether and Bitcoin are the reference for all other currencies, it is for a reason. Not for nothing, you need ETH or BTC to buy other altcoins. You can buy Ether, Bitcoin or Litecoin on coinbase orBinance. Just click on the links.
#2 The early birtd catches the worm. It is the oldest and most widespread crytocurrency in the world. It was the first to use the revolutionary blockchain technology. For this very reason, its price is so high that you’d rather be cautious. It seems to be evolving towards a virtual gold value deposit, so people prefer to keep it rather than to use it to sell and buy goods and services. The fact that you need BTC to buy other altcoins in many exchanges, makes it even stronger. You can buy Ether, Bitcoin or Litecoin oncoinbase orBinance. Just click on the links.
Bitcoin cash (BCH)
#3One might say it’s an evolution of BTC. The fact that Bitcoin has a limit on the size of the block restricted to 1Mb, implies a high processing time in the transactions, so the fork of the cryptocurrency was created taking the 478558 as the last block of the bitcoin. The new coin would generate its own blocks from this string but with a much larger size (up to 8Mb). You can buy Bitcoin Cash oncoinbase orBinance. Just click on the links.
#4 It is becoming a modern classic. Last year it reached second position ahead of Ether in market capitalization for a few months. That was due to the agreement of several Japanese and South Korean banks to use it. Although some see it as a betrayal to the blockchain principles, it is designed to work within the current transactions bank system. They also convinced several companies to adopt its technology. It is a cryptocurrency based on free software that pursues the development of a credit system on a peer to peer basis. Ripple nodes make up a local exchange system, so that the whole system works as a decentralized mutual bank. How to buy ripple? You can do it oncoinbase orBinance. Just click on the links.
#5 It was the first crypto based on Scrypt, and it is a major bet on Coinbase, the first exchange house of the world. The size of its blocks and number of transactions is much larger compared to Bitcoin. Moreover, the fact that it does not need very sophisticated equipment to mine, favours its decentralisation. You can buy Ether, Bitcoin or Litecoin on coinbase or Binance. Just click on the links.
#6 Its white paper really blew my mind. A different coin. It is not based on Blockchain, but on DAG (Direct Acyclic Graph) technology; there are no commissions, no miners (you validate each transactions on your own), confirmation times are fast and the number of transactions that the system can handle simultaneously is unlimited. It is specially focused on the internet of things. Some say it is the next generation of decentralized currency. It is very surprising and different from what I have seen so far. In fact, I see it as a very interesting bet in the mid and long term. Iota was founded in 2015 by David Sønstebø, Sergey Ivancheglo, Dominik Schiener, and Dr. Sergei Popov. If you want to buy IOTA you can do it on Binance.
#7 Lo and behold! Here is a blockchain (Cardano) and a third-generation crypto (ADA) quite attractive investment. Its visible leader is Charles Hoskinson, former Ethereum CEO, who has assembled a team of renowned experts in the world of cryptocurrencies. Cardano is a decentralized platform that will allow programmable value transfers in a secure and scalable way —both horizontally and vertically—. Cardano is one of the first blockchains based on the Haskell high security programming language. Its currency is called ADA. Cardano aims to solve 3 problems: sclabilidad —how many transactions per second the platform can perform—, sustainability —which has to do with the resources and energy used for its operation— and interpolarity —which has to do with the compatibility between different chains of blocks.
While Bitcoin uses Proof of Work to create new blocks, Cardano resorts to Proof of Stake. You can buy ADA (the cardano crypto) on Binance.
#8 It is the open source crypto currency that offers the most protection and privacy, which is why it has often been linked to illicit operations. But as Sissela Bok put it: “While all deception requires secrecy, all secrecy is not meant to deceive”. Either way, it is one of those currencies that makes a difference with its added value. Created in April 2014, it focuses on privacy, decentralization, as well as scalability. Unlike many cryptocurrencies derived from Bitcoin, Monero is based on the CryptoNote protocol and — without going into technicalities — features an algorithm that makes blockchain obscuration possible. Monero benefits from continued support from its community. You can get it on Kraken or Binance.
#9 It is certainly one of my favourites. Based on an innovative idea in the crypto environment, Pacalcoin is pioneering a new level of scalability adapted for adoption on a global scale. It was the first cryptocurrency to break the barrier of 100 transactions per second. Pay close attention to its amazing Safebox, an unparalleled tecnology that makes the blockchain way lighter. If you want to learn more about Pascalcoin, visit Pascalcoin, an awesome crypto with a bright future. You can buy Pascalcoin on Poloniex.
#10 Here is a cryptocurrency of Chinese origin that incorporates a significant added value, which is the reason why it has attracted many investors. It advocates “transparency” and “good governance”. With the support of the Chinese government, it looks like it is going to be listed on coinone. Qtum’s proposal is to execute smart contracts on the blockchain in an easy, user friendly way. As Leonardo da Vinci put it, “simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”. The team behind published its technical whitepaper —which, by the way, not all cryptocurrency projects have done—, and is committed to creating a globally influential open source community by cooperating with other blockchain communities, third-party developers, as well as betting on technical innovations. You can purchase Quantums on Binance.
No ranking would be complete without mentioning some other cryptos that deserve to feature among the best ones due to its added value, the team behind or its novelty. So here they are!
Probably somewhat underestimated, it seems to have a great potential as a bargaining chip, since it has a simple interface and transactions are almost instantaneous. It is totally anonymous —transactions made with Dash are not recorded. Along with Monero, this is an interesting crypto for those looking for more privacy. You can buy Dash on Binance.
It is a Cryptocurrency of Slovenian origin. It is a different project in that it is the first to distribute dividends among the holders of its token, so you can earn in two ways: 1. having Iconomi and 2. with the periodic distribution of dividends (by the way, it is paid in Ethereums). It will probably work in a similar way as an investment fund does. For all that, it is a project that stands out from the crowd. You can buy Iconomis on Binance.
Based on the Ethereum blockchain, it offers full user control. It has been listed on the YoBit exchange house and integrated in Gifto (a protocol focused on virtual gifts). Last year it grew over 700%. You can buy Trons on Binance.
A new kid on the block…chain. Right now you can only buy it on coinmarketcap, though, as far as I am aware, there is also an imminent agreement with Yobit and some talks going on with Bittrex . It intends to be a decentralized exchange and expand to other sectors such as mobile games. Surprisingly enough, an Indonesian group bought a lot of OTX from the ICO (Initial Currency Offering). To be honest, this currency has me a little out of place. We’ll have to wait and see what direction the wind winds. Yes, the cryptocurrencies market is swings and roundabouts, but I’d recommend you keep an eye on Octanox It may cause quite a stir in the near future. You can buy Octanox on Binance.
A crypto currency that, as bold as brass, aims to change the Internet from its same structure, putting an end to the monopoly of data —and of our information— by big corporations. So far, Maidsafe has gone unnoticed. Its goal is very ambitious, maybe it wants to bite off more than it can chew. Anyway, just moving further in this direction, would be an awesome breakthrough.
They have reached an agreement with Microsoft and their initial offer drew a lot of attention and investment. At the moment, it seems that the evolution of its price is falling short of the expectations raised, but we’ll have to be on the ball sincedeep pockets are backing it. You can buy Lisk on Binance.
A Proof-of-Work (PoW) protocol is a measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, typically processing time by a computer.
Proof of Stake (PoS) means that a person can extract or validate block transactions based on how many coins they have, i.e., the more cryptocurrencies a miner has, the more power they have.
Marcel Solé · Financial translator, trainer and Blockchain enthusiast
“Very strange and unusual, unexpected, or not natural”… This is the definition that the Cambridge Dictionary provides for Weird. It goes without saying that I could have given this post a different title: “Top rarest words”, or “Unusual words”, or even “Most wonderful words in the world”, since some of them strike me as little works of art. Be that as it may, the following words feature among the most curious, odd, original or funny ones in the world. The reasons why I have ranked them among the top 10 are varied: from its meaning and its sonority to the way they were formed and its originality. You will also find some honorable mentions at the end of this post. I’m sure you know more interesting words in other languages worthy of featuring in this post, so please feel free to share them in the comments box below.
Language: Yiddish. Incorporated into English language. Phonetic transcription: (/ˈhʊtspə, ˈxʊt-/) Origin/Etymology: It derives from the Hebrew word ḥutspâ (חֻצְפָּה) Meaning: to be extremely cheeky, impertinent beyound belief.
Language: Spanish (Spain) Phonetic transcription: ͡ʧ i ͡ʧ i n a β̞ o (AFI) Origin/Etymology: from De chicha (spirits) and nabo (turnip) Meaning: third-rate, valueless, inferior, very poor quality. The word turnip usually has sexual connotations in Spanish. Even in Spanish, It sounds funny and playful.
Language: Japanese Phonetic transcription: /kaˈrəʊʃi/ Origin/Etymology: from 過労 (karō, “overwork”) + 死 (shi, “death”). Meaning: death caused by overwork or job-related exhaustion.
Language: German Phonetic transcription: /ˈʃɑːdənfrɔɪdə/ Origin/Etymology: from Schaden, “damage, harm”, and Freude, “joy”. Meaning: taking delight in the misfortune of others
Language: Scottish_Gaelic Phonetic transcription: /ˈskʲimiɫəɾʲəxk/ Alternative form: sgimilearachd Origin/Etymology: sgimilear (intruder) + -achd Meaning: the habit of dropping in at mealtimes. To drop in means call informally and briefly as a visitor.
Language: English Phonetic transcription: /eɪp/ Origin/Etymology: From Middle English ape, from Old English apa (“ape, monkey”), from Proto-Germanic *apô (“monkey, ape”), Meaning: to imitate or mimic, particularly to imitate poorly. (v., transitive)
Language: English Origin/Etymology: from Latin arachis (“peanut”) + butyrum (“butter”) + -phobia. Meaning: to have a morbid fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth
Language: Hawaiian Meaning: to scratch one’s head while trying to remember something.
Language: Spanish Phonetic transcription: m ã m p o r e ɾ o (AFI) Origin/Etymology: from mamporro (a blow) + ero (suffix) Meaning: Person who helps horses when breeding, by placing the colt’s member into the mare’s pudenda.
Language: German Phonetic transcription: /ʃʊlt/ Origin/Etymology: from Old High German sculd, from Proto-Germanic skuldiz. Meaning: Schuld means debt, but, fancy that! It is also a synonym for guilt.
+10 Honorable mentions
Needless to say, there are thousands of weird or curious words which deserve to feature in this ranking. The following are just a few examples. Again, feel free to contribute with any word you deem weird, curious or interesting:
TARTLE (Scottish Gaelic): that moment before you introduce someone and you suddenly forget their name.
DÉPAYSANT (French) the feeling you get when you’re in a new place and experiencing very new things that make you feel foreign, like a fish out of water.
KERFUFFLE (British English): to make a fuss or a bother, usually when people have different points of view.
TOCAYO (Spanish) A person who shares your first name.
TSUNDOKU (Japanese): it really means a book only intended to put it on the shelf and never read it
CAFUNÉ (Brazilian Portuguese): delicately running one’s fingers through someone’s hair
CAPICUA (Catalan). Literally “head-and-tail”: number, word, phrase, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward. Spanish borrowed the Catalan word, so “capicúa” (with an accent) is also a Spanish word.
FLÂNER (French): to wander with no particular destination
MENCOLEK (indonesian): the act of tapping someone on the shoulder to fool them into thinking someone is on the other side
HULLABALLOO (English) loud noises and yelling that people make when they’re angry.
Which are the most affordable countries in Europe? Which are the most expensive ones? In this post I am going to analyze such issues using a number of sources and items (see below) that can help solve this conundrum. We saw earlier which are the most expensive and cheapest cities in Europe. Today I am going to focus on each country as a whole. The main parameters used to list the countries in this ranking are GDP per capita, place in the UN Human Development Index, the Big Mac Index, the price of the shopping basket in each country compared to the European average, the price of 1 Kg of rice (as representative of staple food) and then, within each country, you can even check the most expensive and cheapest cities. As we all know, everything is relative (e.g., the market basket in a given country may be more expensive but taxes may be lower), but I think it can offer an overview of the current state of affairs.
While it is true that living standards tend to be lower in Eastern European countries, they are also generally cheaper, or more affordable, if you like, for tourists, expats or people teleworking online (such as freelance translators, copywriters, writers or graphic designers) for, say, western companies or agencies. Portugal, Latvia and Bulgaria feature among the cheapest countries regarding income tax for self-employed or freelancers.On the other hand, Scandinavian countries are considered to be expensive and have high taxes, but they also rank among the countries with the highest living standards not only in Europe, but in the whole world. They are undoubtedly an example of good governance for others to follow.
Today I won’t go into qualitative aspects, since many would argue —not without reason— that weather conditions, the nutritional quality of local food, the social fabric, the quality of social services, gender-equality policies, even the so-called Happiness Index… are key elements for a good quality of life. I fully share this view, but it is a different kettle of fish.
Below the list of the cheapest countries you can find a description of the main concepts and benchmarks I have used to draw up the ranking as well as the sources consulted.
Most expensive countries in Europe
Most expensive countries in Europe (starting with the most expensive one)
Population: 8,544,034 Currency: Swiss Franc GDP per capita: 80,590 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 3 Big Mac Index: 6.59 Cost of the market basket: 163% of the European average Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.52 USD Most expensive cities in Switzerland: Zurich, Geneva, Basel, Lausanne and Bern Cheapest cities in Switzerland:Neuchatel, Aarau and St. Gallen Taxes in Switzerland Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: Low VAT rate: low
Population: 5,312,343 Currency: Norwegian Krone GDP per capita: 74,940 USD (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 1 Big Mac Index: 5.51 Cost of the market basket: 137% of the European average Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.98 USD Most expensive cities in Norway: Cheapest cities in Norway: Bodo and Kristiansand Taxes in Norway Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: High Income tax: High VAT rate: High
Population: 350,710 Currency: Icelandic Krona GDP per capita: 70,332 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 16 Big Mac Index: —— Cost of the market basket: 125% of the European average Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 3.47 USD Most expensive cities in Iceland: Reykjavik Cheapest cities in Iceland: — Taxes in Iceland Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: Average VAT rate: High
Population: 5,745,547 Currency: Danish Krone GDP per capita: 56,444 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 4 Big Mac Index: 4.44 Cost of the market basket: 137% of the European average Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.05 USD Most expensive cities in Denmark: Silkeborg and Copenhaguen Cheapest cities in Denmark: Horsens, Odense and Vejle Taxes in Denmark Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: High VAT rate: High
Population: 602,000 Currency: Euro GDP per capita: 105,803 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 19 Big Mac Index: — Cost of the market basket: 119% of the European average Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.05 USD Puesto en el índice de desarrollo humano: 19 Most expensive cities in Luxembourg: Luxemburgo Cheapest cities in Luxembourg : —- Taxes in Luxembourg Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: High VAT rate: Low
Population: 66,040,229 Currency: Pound sterling GDP per capita: 39,734 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 14 Big Mac Index: 3,94 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.70 USD Most expensive cities in the UK: London, Oxford, Portsmouth, Aberdeen and Bristol Cheapest cities in the UK: Sheffield, Sunderland y Dundee Cost of the market basket: 131% of the European average Taxes in UK Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: High VAT rate: Average
Population: 5,517,887 Currency: Euro GDP per capita: 46,016 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 24 Big Mac Index: 5.06 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 2.20 USD Most expensive cities in Finland: Helsinki and Tampere Cheapest cities in Finland: Lapeenranta, Kuopio Cost of the market basket: 120% of the European average Taxes in Finland Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: High Income tax: Average VAT rate: High
Population: 11,469,204 Currency: Euro GDP per capita: 43,582 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 21 Big Mac Index: 4.35 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.74 USD Most expensive cities in Belgium:Mons, Bruselas and Namur< Cheapest cities in Belgium: Leuven and Liege Cost of the market basket: 107% of the European average Taxes in Belgium Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: High Income tax: High VAT rate: Average
Population: 17,254,086 Currency: Euro GDP per capita: 48,345 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 5 Big Mac Index: 3.8 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.62 USD Most expensive cities in the Netherlands: Zwolle and Amsterdam Cheapest cities in the Netherlands: Groningen and Enschede Cost of the market basket: 109% of the European average Taxes in the Netherlands (Holland) Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: High Income tax: High VAT rate: Low
Population: 67,297,000 Currency: Euro GDP per capita: 39,869 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 22 Big Mac Index: 4.51 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.90 USD Most expensive cities in France: Perigueux, Paris, Lyon and Toulouse Cheapest cities in France: Saint-Étienne, Montpellie, Marseilles and Perpignan Cost of the market basket: 105% of the European average Taxes in France Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: High Income tax: High VAT rate: Average id=”Map_of_sovereign_states_in_Europe_by_2017_GDP_nominal_per_capita_based_on_USD_exchange_rate” class=”mw-headline”>GDP nominal per capita based on USD exchange rate
Cheapest countries in Europe
Cheapest countries in Europe (starting with the cheapest one):
Population: 3,564,000 Currency: Moldovan leu GDP per capita: 2,279 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 107 Big Mac Index: 1.75 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.95 USD Most expensive cities in Moldavia: Tiraspol Cheapest cities in Moldavia: Chișinău Cost of the market basket: 40% of the European average
Population: 42,895,704 Currency: Hryvnia GDP per capita: 2,582 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 81 Big Mac Index: 1.57 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.99 USD Most expensive cities in Ukraine: Kiev, Lutsk, Lviv, Kirovoghrad, Dnipro and Kharkiv Cheapest cities in Ukraine: Simferopol and Zaporizhzhya Cost of the market basket: 45% of the European average Taxes in Ukraine Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Low VAT rate: Average
Population: 2,075,301 Currency: Macedonian Denar GDP per capita: 5,474 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 81 Big Mac Index: 1.90 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.26 USD Most expensive cities in Macedonia: Veles Cheapest cities in Macedonia: Prilep, Ohrib Cost of the market basket: 48% of the European average Taxes in Macedonia Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Average VAT rate: Low
Population: 7,040,272 Currency: Serbian Dinar GDP per capita: 5,899 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 66 Big Mac Index: 2.08 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.08 USD Most expensive cities in Serbia: Belgrade, Valjevo Cheapest cities in Serbia: Zrenjanin, Nis Cost of the market basket: 49% of the European average Taxes in Serbia Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: High VAT rate: Average
Population: 2,887,000 Currency: Albanian Lek GDP per capita: 4,582 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 85 Big Mac Index: —– Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.08 USD Most expensive cities in Albania: Korçë Cheapest cities in Albania:Tirana, Vlorë and Elbasam Cost of the market basket: 47% of the European average Taxes in Albania Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Average VAT rate: Average
Bosnia and herzegovina
Population: 3,750,000 Currency: Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible Mark GDP per capita: 5,148 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 86 Big Mac Index: —— Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.23 USD Most expensive cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zenica Cheapest cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bihac Cost of the market basket: 51% of the European average Taxes in Bosnia and herzegovina Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Low VAT rate: Low
Population: 19,622,000 Currency: Leu GDP per capita: 12,523 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 5 Big Mac Index: —- Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.04 USD Most expensive cities in Romania: Focșani, Bucarest Cheapest cities in Romania: Târgu Mureș Cost of the market basket: 52% of the European average Taxes in Romania Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Average VAT rate: Low
Population: 7,050,034 Currency: Lev GDP per capita: 8,064 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 59 Big Mac Index: 1,88 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.22 USD Most expensive cities in Bulgaria:Pleven Cheapest cities in Bulgaria: Burgas Cost of the market basket: 47% of the European average Taxes in Bulgaria Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Low VAT rate: Average
Population: 38,433,600 Currency: Zloty GDP per capita: 13,822 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 36 Big Mac Index: 2.42 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.82 USD Most expensive cities in Poland: Warsaw, Kraków and Bielsko-Biala Cheapest cities in Poland:Rzeszów, Radom and Gorzów Wielkopolski Cost of the market basket: 55% of the European average Taxes in Poland Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: Average VAT rate: High
Population: 9,452,113 Currency: Belarusian Ruble GDP per capita: 5,760 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 50 Big Mac Index: —– Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 0.95 USD Most expensive cities in Belarus: Minsk Cheapest cities in Belarus: Maladzyechna Cost of the market basket: — Taxes in Belarus Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Average Income tax: Low VAT rate: High
Population: 642,550 Currency: Euro GDP per capita: 7,647 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 49 Big Mac Index: —- Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 1.25 USD Most expensive cities in Montenegro: Budva Cheapest cities in Montenegro: Podgorica Cost of the market basket: 55% of the European average Taxes in Montenegro Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Low VAT rate: Low
Population: 9,771,000 Currency: Forint GDP per capita: 15,531 (GDP nominal per capita – current international dollar) Place in the UNDP Human Development Index: 44 Big Mac Index: 2.71 Price of rice (white, 1 kg): 01.06 USD Most expensive cities in Hungary : Budapest, Szombathely y Györ Cheapest cities in Hungary: Kaposvár, Szolnok y Kecskemét Cost of the market basket: 57% of the European average Taxes in Hungary Since taxation is subject to changes, only an indicative level is given Corporate tax: Low Income tax: Average VAT rate: High ***
Top 10 European countries by GDP 2019
Source: International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook
Top 10 European countries by GDP per capita 2019
Source: International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook
Best European countries for self-employed workers or freelancers
You can easily and swiftly register online as a self-employed worker. You don’t have to pay a monthly fee. Income tax ranges from 25% to 50% depending on the type of self-employed worker. Besides, you can benefit from one of the best welfare states in the world, which includes a wide range of social benefits and access to free education.
If your income is less than £600 (7031€), you are free from the obligation to contribute. If you exceed this amount you pay a percentage depending on your profits. There is no such thing as a minimum capital to register a Limited Liability Company, in case you want to start up your own business.
Self-employed workers have to pay a compulsory health insurance. If your turnover is ≥ 1,700€ net per month, you must pay a 140€ monthly fee. Those who are under 30 years old and those who make less than 1,700€ don’t need to pay VAT. The downside is that if you want to start up your own company, it is not cheap (you need to pay 25,000€)
In Portugal, self-employed workers don’t have to pay a monthly fee. They are not obliged to pay VAT either. It is one of the best countries to be a self-employed worker in Europe.
Even though you don’t pay anything during your first year as a self-worker, you are entitled to health care, pension contributions and temporary disability. After the first year, there is a scale stipulating how much a freelancer must pay depending on its income and work activity. There is no minimum capital required to register a Limited Liability Company.
👕 European Countries T-shirts 👕
Here is a collection of some t-shirts representing European countries. Some of them are amazing and some of them really fun! Click on the shirt or the description below for further details. This section will be regularly updated with new t-shirts.
👕 European Union EU T-shirts
👕 Europe and World map t-shirts
👕 Germany t-shirts
👕 France t-shirts
👕 UK t-shirts
👕 Italy t-shirt
👕 Spain t-shirt
👕 Russia t-shirt
👕 Poland t-shirt
👕 Sweden t-shirt
👕 Switzerland t-shirt
👕 Norway t-shirt
👕 Portugal t-shirt
👕 Iceland t-shirt
👕 Denmark t-shirt
👕 Luxembourg t-shirt
👕 Finland t-shirt
👕 Belgium t-shirt
👕 Netherlands t-shirt
👕 Greece t-shirts
👕 Ireland t-shirts
👕 Romania t-shirt
👕 Chech Republic t-shirt
👕 Slovakia t-shirt
👕 Croatia t-shirt
👕 Moldavia t-shirt
👕 Ukraine t-shirt
👕 Bulgaria t-shirt
👕 Belarus t-shirt
👕 Serbia t-shirt
👕 Albania t-shirt
👕 Montenegro t-shirt
👕 North Macedonia t-shirt
👕 Bosnia and Herzegovina t-shirt
👕 Austria t-shirt
👕 Hungary t-shirt
👕 Kosovo t-shirt
👕 Slovenia t-shirt
👕 Malta t-shirt
👕 Estonia t-shirt
👕 Latvia t-shirt
👕 Lithuania t-shirt
👕 Cyprus t-shirt
👕 Vatican city t-shirt
👕 Andorra t-shirt
👕 Isle of Man t-shirt
👕 San Marino
Explanation of the parameters used in this ranking
GDP per capita is a measure that divides the country’s gross domestic product (its economic output) by its total population.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index of life expectancy, educational standards, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Big Mac Index: The Big Mac Index, published by The Economist magazine, althought not perfect, is useful to measure the purchasing power parity (PPP) between countries and currencies. It uses the price of the famous hamburger as a benchmark. It somehow replaces the shopping basket with the famous hamburger.
Market basket: In an economic sense, a market basket is a permanent set of goods and services that are bought and sold as staples in a functional economy. So it is is a fixed list of items, in given proportions, used specifically to track the progress of inflation in an economy.
I picked one kilo of white rice among all the products which are representative of the cost of living because it is a minimally-processed staple food, so there is no need for a large number of productive factors as, for instance, a car.
Sources: Eurostat, Forbes, The Economist, statista.com, preciosmundo.com, Expatistan, bigmacindex.org, Numbeo.com
First of all, it is important to highlight the difference between the most spoken languages in the world and those more likely to provide career and job opportunities, since the economic and strategic weight of a language depends on many factors, not only on how many people speak it.
Top 10 languages in the world by number of native speakers
* The top 10 languages in the world by number of speakers are: 1. Mandarin Chinese 2. Spanish 3. English 4. Hindi 5. Arabic 6.French 7. Portuguese 8. Bengali 9. Russian and 10. Indonesian.
The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) prepared by the World Economic Forum (WEF) establishes , among other things, the link between the Power Language Index (PLI) and the competitiveness of a country or region.
From a merely utilitarian viewpoint, today we’ll have a look at the most “useful” or, if you like, “profitable” languages in terms of job prospects and future income that they may yield.
Needless to say, there are a number of reasons why you may want to study a language, many of them even more important than the working future or economic return. Of course, we all have our personal goals and preferences. Nonetheless, in this post I’m going to focus on the most practical side.
Not surprisingly, as Latin language or French did before , the English language takes the lead (see the ranking below) as the world’s lingua franca. But… Who knows? If current growth trends continue, Spanish may well take first place within the next decades, since, as it seems, Mandarin Chinese has proved too difficult to learn for non-native speakers. In the current scenario, though, the truth is that four out of the ten more competitive economies in the world have English as an official language and, except for Japan, the other listed countries have an acceptable level of English.
10 most competitive economies
The most competitive economies, according to the World Economic Forum are: 1. United States, 2. China 3. Japan 4. Germany 5. United Kingdom 6. France 7. India 8. Italy 9. Brazil and 10. Canada.
The EU paradox
An important fact which we should not neglect is that, after Brexit, even though English is co-official in Ireland and Malta and it is an official language of the EU, no European country will be represented by English as its official language in the Community institutions and bodies —the language representing Ireland in the EU is Irish Gaelic. Taking into account that the European Union —where French and German seem to play a major role— is one of the three world’s biggest economies (according to some specialists, the first one in many aspects), Brexit might change the balance of power in the Old Continent, at least as far as languages are concerned.
RANKING OF THE MOST USEFUL LANGUAGES IN THE WORLD
According to the Power Language Index (PLI) produced by the World Economic Forum, the 10 most useful languages in terms of competitiveness are:
The Power Language Index (PLI) uses 20 indicators to measure the influence on language, such as number of speakers, geographical coverage, the percentage of world GDP it accounts for, or cultural influence (notably through the diplomatic and media use).
Not without reason, some would argue that the commercial significance of a language depends strongly on where you are (e.g. if you are in Australia, German may be virtually useless from a business perspective, but Japanese will be central, as they are a major trading partner), or that Spanish is now more powerful than French and has much better prospects as a language on a global basis. Anyway, when you take a closer look at the benchmark, you realise that Spanish is hard on its heels. Be that as it may, these are the conclusions drawn by the WEF.
Los idiomas más útiles según el Foro Económico Mundial
Una cosa es los idiomas más hablados en el mundo* y otra cuáles resultan más útiles para abrirse puertas en el terreno profesional.
*Los idiomas más hablados en el mundo son, por orden: 1. Chino mandarín 2. Español 3. Inglés 4. Hindi 5. Árabe 6.Francés 7. Portugués 8. Bengalí 9. Ruso y 10. Indonesio.
El Índice de Competitividad Internacional del Foro Económico Mundial estipula, entre otras cosas, la relación que existe entre el Índice de Utilidad de Idiomas y la competitividad de un país o región.
Desde un punto de vista meramente utilitarista, hoy veremos los idiomas más “provechosos” en términos de ingresos futuros que pueden reportar y de perspectivas laborales.
Huelga decir que existen varias razones para estudiar un idioma, muchas de las cuales más importantes que lo que te va a rendir en términos monetarios y laborales. Pero aquí, hoy, nos fijamos en su vertiente más “práctica”.
El inglés, needless to say, se lleva la palma como el más útil (ver clasificación más abajo); pues como lo fuera antes el latín y después el francés, es actualmente la lingua franca a nivel global. ¿Quién sabe si en un futuro será el español?
Pero las cosas como son: 4 de las 10 economías más competitivas del mundo tienen el inglés como idioma oficial y, a excepción de Japón, las otras 6, tienen un dominio aceptable de este idioma.
RANKING DE LOS IDIOMAS MÁS ÚTILES
Según el Índice de Competitividad Internacional del Foro Económico Mundial, los 10 idiomas más útiles en términos de competitividad son:
Hablantes nativos (en millones)
Según el marcador, vemos que el inglés es el doble de “útil” que el chino mandarín, y prácticamente el triple de útil que el francés o el español.
El Índice de Utilidad de Idiomas utiliza 20 indicadores para medir la influencia de una lengua, tales como el número de hablantes, la implantación geográfica, el tanto por ciento del PIB mundial que representan, los medios de comunicación o la diplomacia.
Idiomas más demandados para trabajar
También es importante señalar que, en función del sector, y al margen del inglés, hay idiomas especialmente valiosos, como por ejemplo el alemán en finanzas, sector farmacéutico e ingeniería mecánica y eléctrica, el francés en el sector económico-financiero y farmacéutico, o el japonés en el sector tecnológico. En el pequeño comercio o retail, el conocimiento del idioma ruso, japonés, árabe o chino es muy valorado. Asimismo, en el sector de la importación y la exportación, el chino mandarín resulta de lo más conveniente. El hecho de que los nativos del país tengan un nivel bajo de inglés (por ejemplo en Japón, en China o en Rusia), te da más valor añadido si aprendes su idioma.
En países como China, aquellos estudiantes que, a parte del inglés (cuyo conocimiento cada vez se da más por sentado a nivel académico), aprenden un segundo idioma extranjero (ya sea japonés, alemán, español, francés…) son muy apreciados y en seguida cuentan con más ventajas en el mercado laboral.
En España cada vez se valora más el conocimiento de una segunda lengua después del inglés (siendo los idiomas más demandados para trabajar el alemán y el francés). Es evidente que el conocimiento de una segunda lengua extranjera es un factor determinante para conseguir buenos puestos de trabajo (sobre todo en cargos altos e intermedios).
El español es, ahora mismo, la primera lengua extranjera de estudio en los Estados Unidos, y su relevancia no para de crecer al mismo tiempo que la del francés decrece. Además, EE.UU. se ha convertido en el segundo país en hablantes de español con 57 millones, por delante de España (47 millones) y sólo por detrás de México (122 millones). La comunidad hispana de EUA está adquiriendo cada vez más parcelas de poder e influencia, con importantes medios de comunicación y empresas en varios sectores, hecho que puede disparar su importancia a nivel global.
Students of Spanish as a Second Language Worldwide
Estudiantes de español como segundo idioma en el mundo
This post is written inEnglishandSpanish · Esta publicación está escrita eninglésyespañol
Spanish is the second foreign language most in demand in Europe and the first one in the United States of America and has over 20 million students throughout the world. Demand for Spanish is soaring and it is moving to take the place of French in Europe as a second foreign language after English .
El español es la segunda lengua extranjera con más demanda en Europa y la primera en los Estados Unidos de América y cuenta con más de 20 millones de estudiantes en todo el mundo. La demanda para estudiar español se dispara y está cerca de ocupar el puesto del Francés en Europa como segunda lengua de estudio después del inglés.
ATENCIÓN PROFESORES: AL FINAL DE ESTE POST PODRÉIS ENCONTRAR VARIAS OFERTAS PARA AUXILIARES DE CONVERSACIÓN Y OFERTAS DE TRABAJO PARA PROFESORES DE ESPAÑOL EN VARIOS PAÍSES
This table shows the approximate number of students of Spanish worldwide, sorted by country and by type of formal education (for those countries where data are available):
Esta clasificación muestra el número aproximado de estudiantes de español en el mundo, ordenada por país y por el tipo de educación reglada (de los países en los que se dispone de datos)
Primary school, secondary school and vocational training
Enseñanza primaria, secundaria y formación profesional
Idioma oficial o cooficial +Estudiantes activos de Español
Spanish language in the USA
Spanish is currently and by far the most widely taught language in US colleges and universities with 53% of the total number of people enrolled, followed by French (14.4%), German (7.1%), Italian (4.5), Japanese (3.7%), and Mandarin Chinese (2.4%).
A curious fact is that the United States is now the world’s second largest Spanish-speaking country after Mexico, so it now has more Spanish speakers (around 50 million) than Spain itself (around 47 million).
El español es actualmente y de lejos el idioma más estudiado en la educación secundaria y superior con un 53% del total de alumnos matriculados, seguido del francés (14,4%), el alemán (7,1%), el italiano (4,5%), el japonés (3,7%) y el chino mandarín (2,4%)
Un dato curioso es que los Estados Unidos es ahora el segundo país en número de hablantes de español después de México, por lo que ahora tiene más hablantes de español (unos 50 millones) que España misma (unos 47 millones).
Most commonly learned foreign languages in the United States
The Diplomas of Spanish as a Foreign Language (DELE), issued by the Instituto Cervantes on behalf of the Spanish Ministry for Education, Social Policies and Sport, are official qualifications proving different levels of competence in the Spanish language.
Los diplomas de español DELE son títulos oficiales que acreditan el grado de competencia y dominio del idioma español. Los otorga el Instituto Cervantes en nombre del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de España.
These are the recommended books by Instituto Cervantes:
Estos son los libros recomendados por el Instituto Cervantes:
… And the following are interesting books for teachers of Spanish as a foreign language:
…Y estos son interesantes para profesores de español como lengua extranjera:
This ranking may come in handy for those who are considering the possibility of moving to a European city, and particularly for those professionals working online, such as freelance translators, designers, web developers… It will give you at least a good indication of which city could yield more for your income. Needless to say, it is not the same to earn $1000 in Oslo as it is in Krákow.
Below you can see the city ranking ―ranging from the most expensive to the least ― so that you can get an idea of where your income can yield more, or where you will enjoy more purchase power with the same amount of money. I have also included some interesting resources that hopefully will prove useful in your research.
Living in Europe
In the economic field, there are other crucial considerations, such as the freelancer’s taxes, whether or not the country is a member of the European Union, city taxes. These cannot be underestimated or sidelined, but overall, a reasonably broad picture of how much it costs to live in one of these cities can be drawn. As a rule of thumb, the cost of living increases by 5% as one moves a line up in the ranking and decreases by 5% when moving a line down.
Most expensive and cheapest cities in Europe
Topping the list as the most expensive city in Europe we find Zürich, in Switzerland, with a population of over 400,000. On the other hand, we find Chişinău in Moldavia, with a population over 700,000, at the bottom of the list as the cheapest city on the Old Continent.
However, I do not wish to suggest that the main criterion when choosing a destination should be the economy, since it could be better to live in modest conditions in what you consider to be a wonderful city rather than be well-to-do in a boring or troublesome city. And some might prefer the seriousness and diligence of Central European cities while others might prefer the light and creativity of southern cities.
Interestingly, neither the most expensive city, Zürich, nor the least, Chişinău, are part of the European Union.
Top 10 most expensive cities in Europe
The ten most expensive cities in Europe― in decreasing order―are Zurich, London, Basel, Lausanne, Bern, Oslo, Reykjavik, Copenhagen, and Stavanger. Not surprisingly, Switzerland is the country with the most cities among the top 10 (Zurich, Geneva, Basel, Lausanne and Bern) and Norway is the country with the second-highest number of cities featured in the top ten.
The total population in Switzerland was estimated at 8.2 million people in 2015 andNorway’s populationwas estimated at 5.2 million people, according to the latest census figures.
10 cheapest cities in Europe
Among the 10 cheapest cities in Europe are Chişinău, Minsk, Kiev, Turana, Timisoara, Iaşi, Skopje, Cluj-Napoca, Yekaterinburg and Wrocław (see the list below).
Yes, I know that this is only a rough indication of expense. The German yoghourts you love so much are more expensive in Tirana than in Berlin, or the transport or road tax is cheaper in one city than the other… But if we make a shopping cart with household expenditure (rent, water, electricity, food, transport, leisure…) the outcome is quite accurate. This ranking is based on Eurostat figures, after all.
Ranking of most expensive and cheapest cities in Europe
Without further ado, here is the list, from the most expensive city (Zurich) to the cheapest (Chişinău):
CITY AND COUNTRY
London (United Kingdom)
Brighton and Hove (United Kingdom)
Cambridge (United Kingdom)
The Hague (Netherlands)
Glasgow (United Kingdom)
Bristol (United Kingdom)
Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
Birmingham (United Kingdom)
Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
Manchester (United Kingdom)
Leeds (United Kingdom)
Belfast (United Kingdom)
Sheffield (United Kingdom)
Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain)
Zagreb – Centar (Croatia)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Saint Petersburg (Russia)
Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Most Expensive and cheapest cities in Europe sorted by country
Most Expensive and cheapest cities in Albania
Albania is a small country with a population of 2,774,000 and lower prices compared to other European countries. It is not a member State of the European Union. The most expensive city in Albania is Korçë and the cheapest ones, Tirana, Vlore and Elbasam.
MASTERING AIRBNBCLICK ON THE PICTURE
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Austria
With a population of 8 million inhabitants, it is an expensive country for an expat. It is a member State of the European Union. The most expensive city in Austria is Vienna and the “cheapest” is Villach.
Most expensive and cheapest Cheapest in Belarus
Belarus is a country with a low cost of living from a western European expat viewpoint. It is not a Member State of the European Union. The most expensive city in Belarus is Minsk and the most affordable is Maladzyechna.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Belgium
The most expensive cities in Belgium are Mons, Brussels and Namur. The less expensive, Leuven and Liège. It is a member State of the European Union.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Most expensive city in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zenica
Cheapest city in Bosnia Herzegovina: Bihać
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Bulgaria
It is a member State of the European Union. The most expensive city in Bulgaria is Pleven and the less expensive, Burgas.
Most expensive and Cheapest cities in Cyprus
Most expensive city in Cyprus: Kyrenia
Cheapest city in Cyprus: Nicosia
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Croatia
It is a member State of the European Union. The most expensive cities in Croatia are Zagreb, Split and Dubrovnik; the cheapest are Slavonski Brod, Pula and Osijek.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in the Czech Republic
It is a Member State of the European Union. The most expensive cities in the Czech Republic are its capital, Prague and Karlovy Vary; the cheapest ones are Pardubice and Ostrava.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Denmark
It is a member State of the European Union. In Denmark, an expensive place for an expat, the most expensive cities are Silkeborg and its capital city Copenhagen; the less expensive ones are Horsens, Odense and Vejle.
Most expensive and cheapest cities in France
France, along with Germany and the United Kingdom, are outstanding expatriates-receiving countries. With over 66 million inhabitants and a GDP of 2.806 trillion USD, it features as the sixth largest economy in the world. It is a Member State of the European Union.
The most expensive cities in France are Périgueux, Paris, Lyon and Toulouse. The most affordable cities in France are Saint-Etienne, Montpellie, Marseille and Perpignan.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Germany
Germany is a heavyweight not only at European level, but on a global level. With a population of 80,620,000 and a GDP of 3.73 trillion USD, features as the fourth largest economy in the world only after US, China and Japan according to the IMF. It is a member State of the European Union.
The most expensive cities in Germany are Munich, Stuttgart, Frankfurt and Hamburg. The cheapest cities in Germany are Leipzig, Dortmund, Bochum and Kiel.
Most expensive and cheapest cities in Greece
It is a Member State of the European Union. With regard to Greece, its most expensive cities are Alexandroupolis, Loaninna, Rhodes (which gives name to the island), Heraklion and Corfu; and the cheapest Greek cities are Katerini, Kalamata and Kavala.
Most expensive and Cheapest cities in Hungary
It is a Member State of the European Union. The most expensive cities in Hungary are Budapest, Szombathely and Györ; the cheapest are Kaposvár, Szolnok and Kecskemét.
Most expensive and Cheapest Cities in the Republic of Ireland
It is a Member State of the European Union. The most expensive city in Ireland is Dublin; and the cheapest ones are Galway and Limerick.
Most expensive and Cheapest Cities in Italy
It is an important country within the European Union. With a population of 59,830,000 and a GDP of 2.149 trillion USD, it ranks as the ninth largest economy in the world. It is a Member State of the European Union.
Ranking among the most expensive cities in Italy are Milan, Rome and Salerno. The cheapest Italian cities are Campobasso, Rovigo and Palermo.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Norway
It is not a Member State of the European Union. In Norway, the most expensive cities are its capital city, Oslo, Tromsø and Bergen; the most affordable cities, so to speak, are Bodo and Kristiansand. It is not a member State of the European Union.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Poland
It is a member State of the European Union. The most expensive cities in Poland are Warsaw, Krakow and Bielsko-Biala; and the cheapest ones Rzeszów, Radom and Gorzów Wielkopolski.
Most Expensive and Cheapest Cities in Portugal
It is a Member State of the European Union. The most expensive conurbations in Portugal are Cascais and Evora; the cheapest are Braga and Monsanto
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Russia
While it is true that only a part of the Russian territory is within the European continent, I have decided to include this country because of its important geostrategic position. As we know, it is not a member State of the European Union. Its most expensive cities are Moscow, Orsk and St. Petersburg; ranking among the cheapest ones are Barnaul, Taganrog, Kirov and Bryansk. Russia’s GDP: 2.097 trillion USD Population: 143.5 millions.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Slovakia
It is a Member State of the European Union. The most expensive cities in Slovakia are Prievidza and its capital city, Bratislava; the cheapest Trnava, Zilina and Presov.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Slovenia
Most expensive city: Ljubljana
Cheapest City: Maribor
Most expensive and Cheapest cities in Spain
Spain is a member State of the Europen Union with a population of 46,770,000 and a GDP of approximately 1.393 trillion USD and is the fifth largest economy in the EU.
Most expensive cities in Spain
San Sebastián, Vitoria, Barcelona, Madrid. Bilbao, Marbella, Oviedo, Palma de Mallorca, Pamplona and Girona.
It is a member State of the European Union. The most expensive cities in Sweden are Gävle, Karlstad, Stockholm and Helsingborg; and the cheapest Växjö, Umeå and Luleå.
Most Expensive and Cheapest Cities in Switzerland
With a population of 8,081,000 and a GDP of 685.4 billion USD, Switzerland is a country whose inhabitants enjoy high living standards. Its capital is Bern, and the most populated city is Zurich (with 390,474 inhabitants, while Bern has only 138.410). Maintaining its tradition of neutrality, it isn’t part of the European Union.
You see that Switzerland boasts several of the most expensive cities in Europe. Featuring among the most expensive citiesin Switzerland are Zurich, Geneva, Basel, Lausanne and Berne; and, as it were, among the “cheapest” cities in Switzerland are Neuchâtel, Aarau and St. Gallen.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has historically been an Expat-receiving country. This year, with the Brexit, this condition might change.
The United Kingdom includes England, Wales, Scotland (at least for the moment), Northern Ireland and the overseas territories.
With a population of over 64 million and a GDP of 2.678 trillion USD, it currently ranks as the 5th largest economy in the world, after US, China, Japan and Germany (IMF). This condition may change after Brexit. It remains to be seen.
Ranking among the most expensive cities in the United Kingdom cities are London, Oxford, Portsmouth, Aberdeen and Bristol; and among the cheapest, Kingston upon Hull, Sheffield, Sunderland and Dundee.
Most Expensive and Cheapest cities in Ukraine
Ukraine has a high population of 45.490.000. It is not a Member State of the European Union, although there is a significant movement in the country in favour of joining the EU. The most expensive cities in Ukraine are Kiev, Lutsk, Lviv, Kirovoghrad, Dnipro and Kharkiv; and the cheapest ones are Simferopol and Zaporizhia.
This list will be updated with new countries
Sources: Eurostat, The Earth Awaits, Numbeo and Expatistan.
Vous trouverez ci-dessous une liste des meilleures agences de traduction, établie en tenant compte de l’attention qu’elles accordent à leurs collaborateurs et à leurs clients, selon trois sources :Translators Café, l’évaluation des traducteurs sur Proz BlueBoard et les commentaires des lecteurs du blog www.financial-translator.com. Si vous souhaitez apporter un commentaire, ajouter une agence à cette liste, etc. Il en sera tenu particulièrement compte.
Inutile de dire qu’il est fort probable qu’une agence de traduction qui traite correctement ses traducteurs (tant internes que freelancers) donnera également à ses clients un service de qualité. Partant, nous incitons les entreprises qui recourent à une agence pour leurs traductions, à ce qu’elles tiennent compte de ce point particulier comme l’un des plus importants, en ce qu’il en dit beaucoup sur les pratiques d’une agence.
Ci-joint également le lien de Proz Blue Board où vous pourrez trouver une évaluation des agences réalisés par les propres traducteurs. Si vous avez quelque suggestion, quelque expérience que ce soit, vous pouvez la faire partager par votre commentaire.
Vous pourrez trouver, ci-dessous, plusieurs liens intéressants pour les traducteurs et interprètes : Une liste des associations de traducteurs et interprètes, une liste de fils sur les traducteurs et interprètes, des formations pour traducteurs de l’humour pour traducteurs (ne le ratez pas) diverses sources…