Category Archives: English language

Variants, dialects and accents of English

Variants, dialects and accents of the English language

English is nowadays the global lingua franca and the third most-spoken native language in the world (the top 10  languages in the world by number of native speakers are: 1. Mandarin Chinese 2. Spanish 3. English 4. Hindi 5. Arabic 6.French 7. Portuguese 8. Bengali 9. Russian and 10. Indonesian). As Bill Bryson puts it in his memorable book The mother tongue, it is a an irony that “a language that was treated for centuries as the inadequate and second-rate tongue of peasants, should one day become the most important and successful language in the world”

As you may know, English is not a uniform language, by a long shot.  From cockney to received pronunciation,  from Jamaican English to  Canadian English and, of course, from the so-called “British English” to “American English”, there are countless examples of local variants, dialects and accents.

But first of all we must make clear what a variant, a dialect and an accent are:

  • A variant is a specific form of a language used in a culture, for example English is a language, and English as used in the USA is a language variant.
  • A dialect is a form of a language spoken in a particular part of a country, containing some different words and grammar.
  • An accent is the way in which people living in or from a particular region or social group pronounce words.

I’ve thought that the best way, or, if you like, the most  straightforward way of understanding such differences and variations is by watching the following videos offered by some awesome native speakers:

acentos en inglés


British English


Standard British English 

Standard British English (often associated with British English and the Received Pronunciation) refers to the dialect of English language that is used as the national norm in a British country, especially as the language for public and formal usage. grammar and vocabulary. Abbreviation: BrE, UK

3 minutes to a proper British accent with U of A“.

Received Pronunciation (RP)

Other names: RP,  BBC Pronunciation, the Queen’s English.

Received Pronunciation is an accent, not a dialect, since all RP speakers  are supposed to speak standard English.  According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, RP is the “standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England”. However,h it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales, since it is identified  not so much with a particular region as with a particular social group (mostly upper and upper middle class).

Cockney (London)

Area: London ( East End are Bethnal Green, Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Stepney, Wapping, Limehouse, Poplar, Clerkenwell, Aldgate, Shoreditch, Millwall, Cubitt Town, Hackney, Hoxton, Bow and Mile End.)

Aly Williams.  Youtube Channel: Learn English with Papa Teach Me

Brummie (Birmingham)

Region: Birmingham, England.
Number of speakers: 3.7 million

Joel and Lia Youtube channel

Picky Blinders’ Cillian Murphy and Helen McCrory on brummie accent  (minute 03: 50)

…Even Picky Blinder’s creator, Steven Knight,  admitted that Birmingham’s accent is “very difficult to get right”.

Scouse (Liverpool)

Region: Merseyside, England.

English like a native Youtube Channel

Liverpool fc Youtube channel


Region: Newcastle, South Northumberland, Tyneside

Graham Oakes’ Youtube channel

Yorkshire accent

Region: Yorkshire, England
Alternative names: Broad Yorkshire, Tyke, Yorkie, or Yorkshire English

Go to Harrison Fletcher’s Youtube Channel

Scottish English

Region: Scotland
Alternative names: Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE).

Youtube Channel: Beauty Creep

Irish English

Alternative names: Hiberno-English
Region: Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Number of speakers: 4.3 million

American English (Standard)

Region: United States of America
Number of speakers: 225 million
Abbreviations: AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US
Alternative names: United States English or U.S. English
Varieties: Eastern New England, New York City, South, North, Midland, West

US map United States map


Youtube Channel:  Pronunciation Pro

American English accents

Fun tour of American accents by Amy Walker, actress, singer and accent chameleon:

Youtube channel: Amy Walker

New England (Connecticut) Accent

Youtube channel: Electric Ryan

New videos coming soon.

Canadian English

Region: Canada
Abbreviations: CanE, CE, en-CA
Native speakers: 19,4 million

 Youtube Channel: Like a Native Speaker

Australian English (Aussie English)

Region: Australia
Native speakers: 16,5 million
Abbreviation: AuE; en-AU)

Youtube channel: Tabloid Junk

New Zealand English

Region: New Zealand
Abbreviation: (NZE)
Number of speakers: 3.8 million

Amy Walker’s Youtube channel

Gibraltarian English

Region: Gibraltar, Iberian Peninsula, Europe.
Abbreviation: GibE

Nigerian English

Region:Nigeria, Africa
Number of speakers: approximately 150 million


Youtube channel:  Adefolake

Jamaican English

Region: Jamaica, Caribbean Sea, America
Number of speakers: 2,890,000

Indian English

Region: India, Asia
Abbreviations: IndE, IE
Number of speakers: around 10% of its population (125 million people) speak English, second only to the USA and expected to quadruple in the next decade! English is also the co-official language of the Indian government.

So… who knows? Maybe we’ll all end up speaking the Indian English variant!
By the way, here is one of the funniest videos about English variants I have ever seen, so enjoy it!

 Youtube Channel: Dyaus Prithivi

One thing is for sure: they have a great sense of humor 🙂


So, as you can see, English language differs greatly from one variant or dialect to another. Robert Burchfield, a New Zealander lexicographer, scholar, and writer, even asserted that American English and British English were drifting away so rapidly that within two centuries both nations won’t be able to understand each other. Whether it is true or not, it remains to be seen. It is my belief that  platforms such as Netflix or HBO, will play an important role regarding this issue.

Perfect English Pronunciation (British English)

Trainer: Anthony Kelleher

Learn every single English sound from a native British speaker to take your accent and pronunciation to the next level



Perfect English Pronunciation Practice (American English)

Make yourself better understood in English when you learn & practice how to pronounce 12 tricky English consonant sounds



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Comprehensive List of Texting and Chat Abbreviations

Texting and Chat Messages

Whatsapp, WeChat, Telegram, Facebook, Twitter… Messaging Apps are changing the way we write and communicate with one another. In the 90s and early 2000s, when people texted SMSs (Short Message Service) and were charged for each one they sent, abbreviations and acronyms were a way to save money. With  primitive chats and SMS we saw the firsts emoticons smile emoticon, which not only have survived the Apps revolution, but play an important role in our day-to-day communications since, as the saying goes, “an image is worth a thousand words”.

Today, such abbreviations  have become a way of saving time and space, rather than money. More often than not, it is difficult to keep track of the overwhelming amount of new expressions, acronyms and even neologisms new generations such as millennials are constantly coming up with.

To help ease the haze that this flood of new terms may cause, here is a list of the most common ones I’ve been able to collect so far. Hope that helps!

Complete List of Messaging Abbreviations and acronyms

1NAM One In A Million
2MORO Tomorrow
2nte Tonight
2N8 Tonight
404 No Clue
5N Fine
A3 Anywhere, anytime, any place
AAB Average At Best
ADL All Day Long
AEAP As Early as Possible
AKA Also Known As
ALAP As Late as Possible
ANY1 Anyone
ASAP As Soon as Possible
ASL Age / Sex / Location?
ATM At the moment
B3 Blah, Blah, Blah
B4 Before
B4YKI Before You Know it
BA3 Battery
BB Bye Bye
BBS Be Back Soon
Bc or B/C Because
BD Big Deal
BF Boyfriend or Best Friend
BFN Bye For Now
BG Big Green
BFF Best Friends, Forever
BM&Y Between Me and You
BOT Back On Topic
BRB Be right Back
BRT Be right There
BTAM Be that as it May
BTW By The Way
B/W Between
C-P Sleepy
CTN Cannot talk now
CTS Changing The Subject
CUA See You Again
CU See You
CUL See You Later
Cuz/Coz/Cause Because
CUS See You Soon
CWOT Complete Waste of Time
CYA See You Again
CYL Call You Later
CYT See You Tomorrow
DIY Do It Yourself
Dunno Don’t Know
E123 Easy as 1, 2, 3
EM Email
EM? Excuse Me?
EOD End of Day
F2F Face to Face
FB Facebook
FC Fingers Crossed
FOAF Friend of a Friend
FWD Forward
FWIW For What Is Worth
FYEO For Your Eyes Only
G2B Going To Bed
GBTW Get Back To Work
GF Girlfriend
GFY Good For You
GM Good Morning
GTG Got To Go
GTH Go To Hell
GN Good Night
GR8 Great
HAK Hugs and Kisses
HBY How about you
HF Have Fun
HU Hugh You
IC I See
ICYDK In Case You Didn’t Know
IDGI I don’t Get It
ILY I Love You
IYDMMA If You Don’t Mind Me Asking
IS I’m Sorry
IACL I Am Currently Laughing
IDC I Don’t Care
IDK I Don’t Know
ILU / ILY I Love You
IMU I Miss You
IMO In My Opinion
IRL In Real Life
J/K Just Kidding
JC Just Checking
JIC Just In Case
JJ Just Joking
JK Just Kidding
JOOC Just Out Of Curiosity
JTLYK Just to Let You Know
KFY Kiss for You
KMP Keep Me Posted
KMN Kill Me Now
KPC Keeping Parents Clueless
KU Kiss You
KYP Keep You Posted
LAM Leave A Message
L8 Late
L8R Later
LMHO Laughing My Head Off
LMK Let Me Know
LMAO Laughing my a*s off
LNG Long
LOL Laughing out loud
LTNS Long Time No See
LU Love You
M8 Mate
MoF Male or Female
MSG Message
MTFBWY May the Force be with You
MU Miss You
MYOB Mind Your Own Business
N-A-Y-L In a While
NAZ Name, Address, ZIP
NC No Comment
NE1 Anyone
NIMBY Not in my Backyard
NOYB None of Your Business
NM Never Mind / Nothing Much
NP No Problem
NSFW Not Safe for Work
NTIM Not that it Matters
NVM Never Mind
OATUS On a totally Unrelated Subject
OIC Oh, I See
OMG Oh My God
OMW On My Way
ORLY Oh, Really?
OTL Out to Lunch
OTP On the Phone
P911 Parent Alert
PAL Parents are Listening
PAW Parents are Watching
Pic Pîcture
PIR Parent in Room
PLZ Please
PMSL Pi*song myself laughing
POS Parent over Shoulder
PPL People
PROP(S) Proper Respect / Proper Recognition
Q4Y Question For You
QT Cutie
R8 Right
RN Right Now
RU Are You
Sec Second
SEP Someone else’s Problem
SITD Still in the Dark
SLAP Sounds like a Plan
SMIM Send Me an Instant Message
SO Significant Other
SS So Sorry
SRY Sorry
SUP What’s Up
SWW Sorry Wrong Window
TC Take Care
TG That’s Great
Tho Though
THX Thanks
TMI Too Much Information
TTYL  Talk To You Later
TTYS Talk To You Soon
TU Thank You
TXT Text
TYT Take Your Time
UR Your / You are
W8 Wait
WB Welcome Back
WTF What The Fuck
WTH What The Hell
WYCM Will You Call Me?
WYWH Wish You Were Here
XOXOXOX Hugs, Kisses, …
YT Youtube
YW You’re Welcome
W8AM Wait A Minute
WAPP Whatsapp
WD Well Done
WP Word Perfect


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New Year’s Eve Quotes

I thank you all for following Financial Translator throughout the year with some New year’s Eve quotes. May you be blessed enough to spend this new year with your family, friends and loved ones. Be grateful and you will have only good things come your way. Happy New Year 2020!


Be at war with your vices, at peace with your neighbors, and let every new year find you a better man. Benjamin Franklin.


If you asked me for my New Year Resolution, it would be to find out who I am. Cyril Cusack.


It’s officially New Year’s Eve, you only have a couple of hours to do all the things you will resolve not to do in the New Year. (joke)


My New Year’s resolution is to stick to a good workout plan that will keep me healthy and happy. James Lafferty.


Your success and happiness lies in you. Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties. Helen Keller.


And now we welcome the new year. Full of things that have never been. Rainer Maria Rilke.


May all your troubles last as long as your New Year resolutions. (joke)


The new year stands before us, like a chapter in a book, waiting to be written. We can help write that story by setting goals. Melody Beattie.


I hope that in this year to come, you make mistakes. Because if you are making mistakes, then you are making new things, trying new things, learning, living, pushing yourself, changing yourself, changing your world. You’re doing things you’ve never done before, and more importantly, you’re doing something. Neil Gaiman.


Hope smiles from the threshold of the year to come, whispering, ‘It will be happier.’ Alfred Lord Tennyson.


Write it on your heart that every day is the best day in the year. Ralph Waldo Emerson.


“Tonight’s December thirty-first,
Something is about to burst.
The clock is crouching, dark and small,
Like a time bomb in the hall.
Hark, it’s midnight, children dear.
Duck! Here comes another year!”
― Ogden Nash.


I hate when people ask me what I’ll be doing in one year, come on guys I don’t have 2020 vision. (joke)


“Ring out the old, ring in the new,
Ring, happy bells, across the snow:
The year is going, let him go;
Ring out the false, ring in the true.”
― Alfred Tennyson, In Memoriam.


“The New Year is a painting not yet painted; a path not yet stepped on; a wing not yet taken off! Things haven’t happened as yet! Before the clock strikes twelve, remember that you are blessed with the ability to reshape your life!”
― Mehmet Murat ildan


“There is nothing magical about the flip of the calendar, but it represents a clean break, a new hope, and a blank canvas.”
― Jason Soroski


“New year, new blessing, new grace and new opportunities, never allow the failures of the past to rub you of the blessings in the new year.”
― Bamigboye Olurotimi


“Let all the failures of your past year be your best guide in the New Year!”
― Mehmet Murat ildan

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Oxford Dictionaries’ 2017 Word of the Year

“Youthquake”: Oxford Dictionaries’ 2017 Word of the Year

After 2015’s Tears of joy emoji and 2016’s post-truth, “Youthquake” — defined as “a significant cultural, political or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people” — takes the title this year.

Casper Grathwohl, The President of Oxford Dictionarie explains why he’s particularly happy about this year’s choice in a post:

“We chose youthquake based on its evidence and linguistic interest. But most importantly for me, at a time when our language is reflecting our deepening unrest and exhausted nerves, it is a rare political word that sounds a hopeful note. Sometimes you pick a word as the word of the year because you recognise that it has arrived, but other times you pick one that is knocking at the door and you want to help usher in … I think this past year calls for a word we can all rally behind.”

The word itself is not exactly the latest trend in neologisms; in fact, it is  almost 50 years old and it was already listed in Oxford Dictionaries.  It was first coined in the 1960s by Vogue editor Diana Vreeland to describe how British youth were changing music and fashion around the world.

Other terms such as Antifa —militant opposition to fascism—, Broflake —a man who is readily upset or offended by progressive attitudes that conflict with his more conventional or conservative views—or Milkshake Duck —a person or thing that initially inspires delight on social media but is soon revealed to have a distasteful or repugnant past— also made it onto Oxfor Dictionarie’s Word of the Year shortlist.


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Proz webinar

Idioms illustrated


They say an image is worth a thousand words. But I think an image backed by an explanation is even more powerful, specially when applied to idioms.

When I have a bad hair day and I need to let off steam, or when I am at a lose end, I fancy working on it rather than watching videos on the sofa like a couch potato.

At the end of this post you will find links to over 300 illustrated idioms, business idioms and puns.

Without further ado, please enjoy the following idioms 🙂

1. Let off steam

Let off steam (EN) Desahogarse (SP)

What is an idiom?

An idiom  is a phrase or an expression with a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom’s figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. There are thousands of idioms, occurring frequently in all languages. It is estimated that there are at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language. From the Latin word idiom, “special property”, and, in turn, from Ancient Greek: ἰδίωμα, “special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity”, f. Ancient Greek: ἴδιος, translit. ídios, “one’s own”.

2. A skeleton in the closet

idioms illustrated

3. (to) Dig one’s heels in


(to) dig one’s heels in (EN) Mantenerse en sus trece (SP)

4. (to) go blank


5. Couch potato

6. A bad hair day

un día de perros en inglés

7. Up and running

8. Out and about

9. (to) be at a loose end

quedarse en blanco

10. (to) Blow one’s mind


(to) blow sb’s mind (EN)  Impresionar / Dejar flipado a alguien (SP)

11. (to) talk turkey


(to) talk turkey (EN) Hablando en plata (SP)

12. (to) find one’s feet

to find one's feet

(to) find one’s feet (EN) Situarse. Ponerse al día / corriente (SP)

13. Ignorance is biss


Ignorance is bliss (EN) Bendita ignorancia (SP)

14. Cat got your tongue

Shortened form of Has the cat got your tongue? It means trying to compel or urge someone to speak up when they are being unnecessarily quiet

Business idioms and jargon illustrated

financial jargon

games on words

Business idioms

Business idioms and financial jargon illustrated

business idioms

An idiom is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning whereas Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context —usually a specific trade or profession— and may not be well understood outside of it. Here you have a list of some of the most common idioms and jargon used in business. I’ve also included some sayings and terms that may come in handy in some business situations. This post will be regularly updated with new idioms and jargon.

A Company man


  1. A company man. Spanish: hombre de empresa. Business idiom. Example: John’s a company man. We can trust him. He’ll keep his mouth shut.

Captain of industry

2. Captain of industry. Spanish: jefe de la industria. Business idiom. Example: Today we are having lunch with a captain of industry.

(to) cut one’s losses

3. (to) cut one’s losses in Spanish: recortar gastos. Business idiom. Example: It’s time for Pear Enterprises to cut their losses and negotiate.

(to) go public

4. (to) go public. Spanish: Salir a bolsa. Financial jargon.

(to) go belly up

business idioms

5. (to) go belly up . Spanish: Irse a pique. Business idiom.

There’s no such thing as a free lunch


6. There’s no such thing as a free lunch. Spanish: No hay duros a cuatro pesetas.  Saying. Example: Unfortunately, there’s no such thing as a free lunch.

Green shoots

expresiones en inglés expressions in Spanish

7. Green shoots (the first signs of an improvement in an economy). Spanish: brotes verdes. Business idiom. Example: The tentative green shoots of recovery seem to be withering away.

Chicken feed

money idioms economy idioms modismos sobre economía y dinero

8. Chicken feed (a very small amount of money). Business idiom.

Big fish

business idioms

9. Big fish in Spanish: pez gordo. Business idiom. Example: He’s a big fish in a very small pond.

Traducción financiera
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10. Shark (e.g. loan shark). Shark in Spanish: tiburón (also in a figurative sense). Financial jargon. M&A is usually a dog-eat-dog shark tank business

800-pound gorilla

business idioms

11. 800-pound gorilla. Business idiom.

(to) foot the bill

economy and finance idioms

12. (to) foot the bill. (to) foot the bill in Spanish: pagar la factura (sometimes called “la dolorosa”). Business idiom. Example: One way or another, citizens always have to foot the bill.

(to) be broke

13. (to) be broke (to have no money). (to) be broke in Spanish: estar sin blanca. Business idiom.

Money doesn’t grow on trees

money idioms

14. Money doesn’t grow on trees / Money don’t grow on trees.  Saying.

Native speakers will often use the form “Money don’t grow on trees” in informal situations as it’s faster to prononce “don’t”, due to the fact it has one less syllable. In Spanish “El dinero no cae del cielo” (literally money doesn’t fall from the sky) conveys the same meaning.

(to) be rolling in money

money idioms

15. (to) be rolling in money / (to) be rolling in it. In Spanish, “estar forrado”. Business idiom. Also: (to) be made of money

Money talks

money idioms

16. Money talks (you can do what you want with money). In Spanish one cas say “poderoso caballero es don dinero” (literally, Mr Money is a powerful gentleman) conveying the same meaning. Business idiom.

Money doesn’t give happiness

money idioms

17. Money doesn’t give happiness. In Spanish, “el dinero no da la felicidad”.  Saying.

A rising tide lifts all boats

business idioms

18. A rising tide lifts all boats.  Saying.

Time is money

financial idioms

19. Time is money (e.g. In other words, in international trade, time is money). In spanish “el tiempo es oro” (literally time is gold).  Saying.

(to) call a loan

finance idioms

20. (to) call a loan. Financial jargon.

Ill-gotten gains

business idioms

21. Ill-gotten gains (e.g. These ill-gotten gains are laundered and go into circulation in the legal economy). Spanish: ganancias ilícitas. Business idiom.

Money laundering

financial jargon

22. Money laundering is the process of transforming the profits of crime and corruption into ostensibly ‘legitimate’ assets. (e.g.  The EU had also introduced measures to monitor and prevent money-laundering). Spanish: blanqueo de dinero. Financial jargon.

Money for jam

economy idioms

23. Money for jam (e.g. Selling cold drinks with a vending machine  is money for jam when it is very hot).· also money for old rope. Spanish: dinero fácil. Business idiom.

(to) be worth its weight in gold

valer su peso en oro en inglés

24. (to) be worth its weight in gold (e.g. His ideas are worth its weight in gold). Spanish: valer su peso en oro.  Saying.

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win win picture

25. It’s a win-win (Beneficial to each of the two parties). Spanish: ventajoso para todos. Business idiom.

(to) skyrocket

financial jargon financial idioms

26. (to) skyrocket. Spanish: dispararse. Financial jargon.

Margin call

financial idioms financial jargon

27. Margin call. Spanish: ajuste de márgenes. Financial jargon.

Liquid assets

finance liquid assets

28. Liquid assets. Spanish: activos líquidos. Financial jargon.

Cash cow

business jargon business idioms

29. Cash cow. Cell phone accessories are a cash cow for our business. Spanish: vaca lechera, gallina de los huevos de oro… Business idiom.

bitcoin for free

Bull market

bull market stock market stock exchange

30. Bull market. Spanish: mercado alcista. Financial jargon.

Bear Market / Bearish market

31. Bear Market: A stock market where a majority of investors are selling (“bears”), causing overall stock prices to drop. Financial jargon.


financial jargon

32. Bear market. Spanish: mercado bajista. Financial jargon.

Venture capital

financial jargon

33. Venture capital. Spanish: Capital riesgo. Business idiom.

Hostile takeover

opa hostil en inglés

34. Hostile takeover. Spanish: compra hostil. (Hostile bid: OPA hostil). Financial jargon.

Ninja loan

financial jargon idioms

35. Ninja loans. Financial jargon.

Real-Estate bubble

housing bubble property bubble

36. Real-estate bubble. Also: housing bubble or property bubble. Spanish: burbuja inmobiliaria. Financial jargon.

Tax haven


37. Tax haven or tax shelter. Spanish: paraíso fiscal. Financial jargon.

A debt paid is a friend kept


friends and debts money

38. [Saying] A debt paid is a friend kept.  Saying.

Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth


39. [Saying] Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth French: Un tiens vaut mieux que deux tu l’auras.  Saying.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

40. [Saying] A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.  Saying.

All that glitters is not gold

sayings dichos

41. All that glitters is not gold.  Saying.

A promise is a promise

A promise is a promise

42.  A promise is a promise.  Saying.

Don’t put all your eggs in one basket


no pongas todos los huevos en la misma cesta

43. [Saying]  Don’t put all your eggs in the same basket

A square deal

44. Square deal (A fair agreement). Spanish: trato justo. Business idiom.

Nest egg

business idioms

45. Nest egg. Spanish: fondo de reserva. Business idiom.

Short selling

venta a corto

46. Short selling. Spanish: venta a corto, venta al descubierto. Financial jargon.

Stocks / Shares

tipos de acciones

47. Blue chips           48. Growth stocks           49. Defensive stocks         50. Income stocks           51. Value stocks        Financial jargon.

Junk bond

financial jargon

52. Junk bond: A bond which is considered below “investment grade” due to a significant risk of default by the issuer. The interest rate is higher in order to compensate holders for that risk. Junk bond in Spanish: bono basura.

A penny saved is a penny earned


business idioms

53. A penny saved is a penny earned.  Saying.


Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

54. EBITDA Financial and accounting jargon.

Credit Rating

financial jargon

55. Credit rating. Spanish: calificación crediticia. Financial jargon.

Asset management

financial jargon

56. Asset Management. Spanish: gestión de activos. Financial jargon.



57. Leverage: In finance, leverage  is any technique involving the use of borrowed funds in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after tax income from the asset and asset price appreciation will exceed the borrowing cost. Leveraging enables gains and losses to be multiplied. Spanish: apalancamiento. Financial jargon.

(to) keep one’s head above water

financial idioms

58. (to) keep one’s head above water. Spanish: mantenerse a flote. Business idiom.

On a shoestring

economy idioms

59. On a shoestring > The documentary was made on a shoestring. Spanish: con recursos mínimos, con un bajo presupuesto. Business idiom.

Insider trading

busines idioms

60. Insider trading > The use of confidential information by an Associate for personal business and insider trading is strictly prohibited. Spanish: tráfico de información privilegiada. Financial jargon.

Chinese wall

financial jargon

61. Chinese wall >  A set of rules and procedures – known as a Chinese wall – have been established to prevent inside information from reaching the areas responsible for the management of the ECB’s foreign reserves and own funds portfolio. Chinese wall in Spanish: muralla china. Business and financial jargon.

Fair trade

comercio justo

62. Fair trade. Spanish: comercio justo.

Economy of the common good

économie du bien commun

63. Economy for the common good

Comparative advantage

64. Comparative advantage. Spanish: ventaja comparativa.

Absolute advantage

ecomomics foreign trade

65. Absolute advantage. Spanish: ventaja absoluta.

Monkey business

business idioms

66. Monkey Business. Business idiom.

Banker’s hours

67. Banker’s hours. Business idiom.

Interest rates

financial jargon

68. Fixed and floating interests rates. Spanish: tipos de cambio fijos y variables.

Quantitative easing

flexibilización cuantitativa

69. Quantitative easing in Spanish: expansión cuantitativa

Above board

business idioms

70. Above board  > The negociations were long and at times quite difficult, but completely open and above board. Above board in Spanish: sin trampa ni cartón, trato justo. Business idiom.

Rags to riches

Money idioms

71. Rags to riches. Money idiom.


Golden handshake

business idioms

72. Golden handshake. Business idiom.

Talk shop

talk business

73. (to) talk shop. Business idiom.

Rome was not built in a day


74. Rome wasn’t built in a day. Saying.

Out of the frying pan into the fire

idioms in Spanish

75. Out of the frying pan into the fire. (French: de Charybde en Scylla). Saying.

Market capitalization

financial jargon

76. Market capitalization. Financial jargon.

(to) be sky high

economy idioms

77. (to) be sky-high. Business idiom. Spanish: estar por las nubes. Business idiom



78. Wrapper. Financial Jargon.


It’s good fishing in troubled waters



79. It’s good fishing in troubled waters. Saying.

Hard cash

contante y sonante en inglés

80. Hard cash (meaning coins or notes, but not cheques or  credit cards). Idiom.

Double-edged sword

arma de doble filo en inglés

81. Double-edged sword

Success and failure

two sides of the same coin

82. Success and failure are two sides of a coin called risk, financial translator.

Never invest more than you can afford to lose


risk meme

83. Never invest more than you can afford to lose (business saying)

High risk high reward

finance saying

84. High risk, high reward (business saying)

(to be) born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth


economy idioms

85. (to be) born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth: (to be) born into a wealthy and privileged family. Idiom.

Back-of-the-envelope calculation

business idioms

86. Back-of-the-enveloipe calculation: quick approximate calculation done informally.  Rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as an envelope.

(to) have deep pockets

(to) have deep pockets

87. (to) Have deep pockets: (to) have a lot of money or abundant financial resources.

(to) be ahead of the game

88. (to) stay / be ahead of the way. to know more about the most recent developments in a particular field than the companies one is competing against. Spanish: Llevar la delantera.

Quit while you’re ahead


business idioms

89. Quit while you’re  ahead: don’t try to improve sth that is already accomplished, specially if it is rewarding but risky.

Blank cheque

business idioms

90. Blank cheque (When someone is given an unlimitted freedom of action. A grant of complete authority to spend an unlimited amount of money, or to take other actions without restraint.) · Example: Generally, courts have held that the First Amendment does not give people of faith a blank check to ignore the law. Spanish: Cheque en blanco.

(to) be coining it

to be coining money

91. (to) be coining it:  to be earning a lot of money. Also: (to) be coining money or (to) be minting it/minting money.  Spanish: Estar montado en el dólar. Example: She must be coining it in with all those extra shifts.

Ballpark figure/number

business idioms

92. Ballpark number / figure. Spanish: una cifra aproximada. Example: A ballpark figure for the number of staff the company might require would therefore be around 50.

(to) corner the market

business idioms

93. (to) corner the market. Spanish: dominar el mercado.

Grasp all, lose all

94. Grasp all, lose all. Spanish: la avaricia rompe el saco.

(to) Run the numbers

business idioms

95. (to) run the numbers = (to) do the numbers. Spanish: echar cuentas. Example: When we ran the numbers it started looking very attractive.

License to make money

business idioms

96. Licence (UK) License (US)  to print money. Spanish: una máquina de hacer dinero.

For a song

business idioms

97. For a song (very cheap). Spanish: por cuatro perras.

(to) cook the books

business idioms

98. (to) cook the books). Spanish: amañar las cuentas. Example: The accountant cooked the books and made himself a lot more money

Think outside the box

business idioms

99. Think outside the box. Example: To increase sales we must begin thinking outside the box.

Across the board

Business idioms

100. Across the board. Spanish: de modo generalizado. Example: Accountability must be applied fairly and across the board.

Fish or cut bait

business idioms

101. Idiom: Fish or cut bait, Mark. There’s work to be done here. Decide whether you’re going to watch or help. Spanish: No te quedes de brazos cruzados y haz algo.

Learn the ropes

business idioms

102. Idiom: (to) learn the ropes


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Business idioms Illustrated · Business proverbs · Business sayings memes · Business terms · Modismos sobre negocios · Proverbios sobre negocios · Dichos sobre negocios · Términos económico-financieros

Difference between “Merry Christmas” and “Happy Christmas”

Merry Christmas Vs Happy Christmas

The word “Merry” stems from the old English myrge, which means “pleasing, agreeable, pleasant or sweet”, and Christmas stems from the late Old English Cristes mæsse, that means “Mass of Christ.”


The greeting “Merry Christmas” dates back to  1565, when the author of the Hereford Municipal Manuscript wrote “And thus I comytt you to God, who send you a mery Christmas & many.”  It was solidified as a capitalized greeting by Charles Dickens in his great work A Christmas Carol.


Charles Dickens and Queen Elizabeth

However, Queen Elizabeth didn’t like how “merry” sounds. That’s the reason why she preferred “happy” to “merry” , and she used it in her broadcasts to her subjects, so the term gained popularity over the following decades and it is still the most common form in Great Britain and Ireland.

Odd as it may seem, the fact is that today, in England and much of its  Commonwealth, the common greeting is “Happy Christmas”  whereas “Merry Christmas”, a more archaic expression,  is what people say in America.

So Merry Christmas or Happy Christmas to all my fellow readers!

Merry Christmas in French: Joyeux Noël!
Merry Christmas in Spanish: ¡Feliz Navidad!
Merry Christmas in German: Frohe Weihnachten!
Merry Christmas in Italian: Buon Natale!
Merry Christmas in Portuguese: Feliz Natal!
Merry Christmas in Japanese: メリークリスマス
Merry Christmas in Russian: С Рождеством!
Merry Christmas in Dutch: Vrolijk kerstfeest!
Merry Christmas in Swedish: God jul!
Merry Christmas in Czech: Veselé vánoce!
Merry Christmas in Turkish: Mutlu Noeller!
Merry Christmas in Catalan: Bon Nadal!
Merry Christmas in Basque: Eguberry on!
Merry Christmas in Galician: Bo Nadal!…


Difference between Merry Xmas and Happy Xmas

Word of the year 2016: Post-truth

Last year Oxford Dictionaries surprised us all by choosing an smiley (tears of joy ? ) as word of the year 2015.

Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016

And this year, the prestigious Oxford Dictionaries decided that the word of the year is post-truth, an adjective ‘relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief’.

Oxford dictionaries definition of Post-truth

The contemporary origin of the term is attributed to blogger David Roberts who used it in 2010 in a column for Grist.

The Oxford Dictionaries Words of the Year —you can see a list of the last WOOTYs below— are selected by editorial staff from each of the Oxford dictionaries. The jury or selection team is made up of lexicographers and consultants to the dictionary team, and editorial, marketing, and publicity staff.

Francis Fukuyama on Post-truth Society

A distinctive feature of post-truth politics is that some politicians continue to repeat their talking points, even if these are found to be untrue by the media or independent political analysts.

Post-truth in Spanish

Post-truth en español

Post-truth in Spanish is Posverdad *

La palabra del año 2016 es Posverdad*

* According to Fundéu Posverdad, without t nor hyphen is better than the form  post-verdad.

* Según Fundéu Posverdad, sin t y sin guión es preferible a la forma post-verdad

Post-truth in French

Mot de l’annee 2016 Post-truth en Français

Post-truth in French is Post-verité *

Le mot de l’année 2016 selon Oxford Dictionaries est… post-vérité

*Post-vérité” looks more popular to French journalists (used in Le Monde, Libération, Le Nouvel-Obs, …)

Last years…

2015 (Face With Tears of Joy, part of emoji)
2014 Vape
2013 selfie
2012 omnishambles GIF (verb)
2011 squeezed middle
2010 big society refudiate
2009 simples unfriend
2008 credit crunch hypermiling
2007 carbon footprint locavore
2006 bovvered carbon-neutral
2005 sudoku podcast
2004 chav


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Oxford Dictionaries word of the year 2015

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish I

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish II

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish III

Popular English idioms about money I

Popular English idioms about money II


Popular English Sayings about money translated to Spanish II

Sayings, Idioms and Expressions about Money translated to Spanish II

Dichos, Modismos y expresiones sobre el dinero traducidos al español II

An idiom is a sentence or a fixed expression with a figurative or literal meaning. Idioms fall into the category of formulaic language. Many languages have thousands of idioms, and English and Spanish, with around 25,000 idiomatic expressions,  is not an exception.

Here you have the second  list of some of the most popular idioms in English about money and its translation to Spanish . You are welcome to contribute with new idioms, sayings and expressions in the comment box below. I hope you enjoy this!

  • Time is money:  This famous proverb was first coined in a phrase used by Benjamin Franklin in Advice to a Young Tradesman, meaning that one should not waste time that could be used to earn money. Spanish: el tiempo es oro.
  • (to) Live to Hand to mouth:  to have just enough money to live on  without any extra cost. Spanish: tirar de ahorros.
  • (to) be coining it: (also coining money): to be earning a lot of money. Spanish: Estar montado en el dólar
  • Drop a dime: to make a phone call (usually to the police to inform or betray someone) Spanish: Dar el chivatazo.
  • (to) Pinch pennies: to be in a situation in which one is forced to spend as little money as possible. Spanish: contar cada centavo.

  • (to) have money to burn: to spend a lot of money on unnecessary things Spanish: Quemar el dinero. Derrochar.
  • Money for old rope: Money one gets for doing something very easy. Spanish: there is not an exact translation for this expression, but you can use “es pan comido” meaning that something is very easy (Este trabajo es pan comido).
  • (to) be minting it (also minting money): To earn a lot of money quickly. Spanish: saltar la banca
  • (to) be loaded with money: to have a lot of money, to be rich. Spanish: estar cargado de dinero.
  • (to) make a killing: to make a lot of money.  Spanish: ganar mucha pasta / plata.
  • (to) make ends meet: to make enough money to buy or pay what you need to live. Spanish: Llegar a fin de mes.

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Popular English idioms about money I

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish I

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish II

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish III


Popular English idioms about Money translated to Spanish I

Idioms about Money translated to Spanish I

Modismos sobre el dinero traducidos al español I

An idiom is a sentence or a fixed expression with a figurative or literal meaning. Idioms fall into the category of formulaic language. Many languages have thousands of idioms, and English, with around 25,000 idiomatic expressions,  is not an exception.

Here you have the first  list of some of the most popular idioms in English about money . You are welcome to contribute with new idioms in the comment box below. I hope you enjoy this!

* A dime’s worth (An insignificant amount) · Why is she here? Nothing will change. At best, she’ll make a dime’s worth of difference.  Spanish: sin valor, no vale un centavo, poca cosa vale. 

*A fool and his money are soon parted (This means that stupid people spend money without thinking about it enough. Depending on the context, this can also mean that It is easy to get money from foolish people, especially rich ones.) Spanish: a los tontos no les dura el dinero.

* All that glitters is not gold (Appearance is sometimes misleading. Things that appear valuable or worthwile might not be as good as they look). Spanish: No todo lo que reluce es oro.

* (to) Bet your bottom dollar (when somebody is absolutely sure about something) · He talks about Egypt a lot, but I would bet my bottom dollar that he has never actually been there. Spanish: apostar hasta el último centavo.

* Blank cheque (When someone is given an unlimitted freedom of action. A grant of complete authority to spend an unlimited amount of money, or to take other actions without restraint.) · Generally, courts have held that the First Amendment does not give people of faith a blank check to ignore the law. Spanish: Cheque en blanco.

*(to) Cost an arm and a leg (also cost a comb, the Earth… meaning extremely expensive) · Who said a thin cell phone had to cost an arm and a leg? Spanish: Costar un ojo de la cara. Costar un riñón.

* For a song (extremely cheap) · I could buy this house for a song, because it’s just by the highway. Spanish: por cuatro duros, por cuatro perras, por cuatro chavos, por casi nada…

*Ill-gotten gains (gained dishonestly) · Ill-gotten gains never prosper. Spanish: ganancias ilícitas, ganado ilícitamente

*Licence to print money (a company or activity that generates a lot of money easily) · Slot machines  are just a licence to print money. Spanish: ser una máquina de hacer dinero.

* Money talks (It suggest that people can get whatever they want with money) ·  Moguls always get their way because money talks. Spanish: poderoso caballero es don dinero.

* Rags to riches (refered to someone that rises from poverty to wealth) · They used to be quite poor and after their invention they certainly moved from rags to riches. Spanish: de mendigo a millonario.

* (to) be worth its weight in gold (something or someone that is very valuable). Good idea, Mike! You’re a genius. You’re worth your weight in gold. Spanish: valer su precio en oro.

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Popular English idioms about money II

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish II

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish III