Tag Archives: finance

The European Debt Crisis: Fiscal Union or Breakup

The European Debt Crisis

EU: Fiscal Union or Breakup

my opinion

Creating a monetary union without a fiscal union was certainly getting off on the wrong foot. We have recently seen how the UK’s left the EU in the lurch after a surprising outcome of the referendum (arguably against their own interests). But there’s no use crying over spilled milk. At this point, rather than focusing on blaming one another and letting the sparks fly, we should consider the most urgent measures to be taken.

The crux of the matter is that there is no system in place to prevent the European debt crisis from breaking out again. As things look at the moment, it is highly likely that in the next few years we fall into the same debt trap, with all the suffering, sacrifice and cutbacks that entails. Amazingly, such tax harmonisation is still up in the air.

One thing is for sure: the euro area requires a fiscal union to match its monetary union. There must be an entity with the ability to implement fiscal policy throughout the European Union, raising taxes and setting laws when necessary. That would be the way of preventing excessive borrowing and spending.

As one may expect, in some member states of the EU it would be a very unpopular step to take, because it would mean to hand over more national sovereignty to a supranational entity. As we have seen, it is common among the extreme right to blame the EU —and, of course, immigrants— for the nation’s ills, even when it has little or no connection at all. Nevertheless, It is an easy way to capture the gut reaction votes from an often uninformed society.

On the other hand, further redistributive polices are required to ensure social justice. As a matter of fact, these are precisely the sort of measures which can project a more sympathetic image of the European institutions. As I see it, MEPs should take this consideration on board and start racking their brains to design a sound fiscal union if they don’t want to face disaster. We cannot push the issue onto the back burner any longer.

While the future of the Union is at stake, the lack of leadership is a troubling indicator of the big gap between institutions and citizens. Whether the EU will do what it takes to create a centralized fiscal policy or the monetary union will break up, remains to be seen.

financial translation

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English <> Spanish Financial Crisis Glossary 

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Financial translation



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Etymology of Finance

Etymology: Origin of the word Finance


The word finance has different but interrelated meanings, namely, 1) the management of large amounts of money -specially by governments or large companies, 2) giving monetary suport for an enterprise and 3)  the monetary resources and affairs of a State, organization or person.


Financius, from the noun finis (“end”) is the Latin etymological origin of the modern English word Finance.

It migrated from Latin to old French as finaunce,  from finer ‎(to pay a ransom), whence also English fine ‎(to pay a penalty).

In fact, the original English sense was “ending”. The sense  “ending/satisfying a debt” came from French influence.

So in the mid 15th century the sense was “ransom”, and later in the same century, “taxation”.

It was first recorded in the sense of managing money in 1770.

1- Old French: Fin

2- Old French: Finer English: Fine

3- Late Middle English: Finance

Finance in Many languages

Language Ways to say finance
Albanian financë
Basque Finantzaketa
Belarusian фінансы
Bosnian finansije
Bulgarian финанси
Catalan finances
Croatian financije
Czech finance
Danish finans
Dutch financiën
Estonian rahandus
Finnish rahoittaa
French financement
Galician finanzas
German Finanzen
Greek Οικονομικών
Hungarian pénzügy
Icelandic fjármál
Irish airgeadas
Italian finanza
Latvian finanses
Lithuanian finansai
Macedonian финансии
Maltese finanzi
Norwegian finans
Polish finanse
Portuguese finanças
Romanian finanțe
Russian финансы
Serbian финансије
Slovak financie
Slovenian finance
Spanish finanzas
Swedish finans
Ukrainian фінанси
Welsh cyllid
Yiddish פינאַנצן

Saying Finance in Asian Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Armenian ֆինանսներ
Azerbaijani maliyyə
Bengali অন্যদের
Chinese Simplified 财政
Chinese Traditional 財政
Georgian ფინანსთა
Gujarati નાણા
Hindi वित्त
Hmong hais txog nyiaj txiag
Japanese ファイナンス
Kannada ಹಣಕಾಸು
Kazakh қаржы
Khmer ហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ
Korean 재원
Lao ທາງດ້ານການເງິນ
Malayalam ധനകാര്യ
Marathi अर्थ
Mongolian санхүү
Myanmar (Burmese) ဘဏ္ဍာရေး
Nepali वित्त
Sinhala මූල්ය
Tajik молия
Tamil நிதி
Telugu ఫైనాన్స్
Thai การเงิน
Urdu خزانہ
Uzbek moliya
Vietnamese tài chánh

Saying Finance in Middle-Eastern Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Arabic تمويل
Hebrew מימון
Persian امور مالی
Turkish maliye

Saying Finance in African Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Afrikaans finansies
Chichewa zachuma
Hausa finance
Igbo ego
Sesotho tsa ditjhelete
Somali Maaliyadda
Swahili fedha
Yoruba Isuna
Zulu ezezimali

Saying Finance in Austronesian Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Cebuano finance
Filipino pananalapi
Indonesian keuangan
Javanese finance
Malagasy bola
Malay kewangan
Maori pūtea

Saying Finance in Other Foreign Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Esperanto financoj
Haitian Creole finans
Latin oeconomicis

Financial Translator

Why am I a financial translator?

Why am I a financial translator?

By Francesca Airaghi

Boring? It is not!

I might have done something else in my life. However, I have always wished to become a translator.
I could translate tourist guides, I love travelling! Possibly cookbooks, I like cooking!

Why am I a financial translator? In the beginnings, it was by chance. I started working in-house at a translation company specialising in finance and law. My educational background was foreign languages and literature. Over the years, I attended numerous courses on economics and the capital markets and worked side by side with experts. I have been a financial translator for more than 20 years now, and if you ask me why I am a financial translator, the answer is that I like it. I love my job.

Financial translation may be challenging though rewarding. People think it is boring or too complex and overlook a specialisation that can be profitable, a constantly growing sector. Volumes are increasing (there is a recent Deloitte study confirming it), and the financial translation sector is very wide, spanning from accounting such as annual reports, financial statements, to investment funds and asset management, banking, international trade, or corporate communication. A translator might know a lot about accounting but almost nothing about financial markets or asset management, or might not have the writing skills to translate corporate communication. You can choose to specialise in a niche. As a financial translator, I work with global companies, leading banks, worldwide asset managers. They are usually good paying clients.

Why would I recommend to other translators to specialise in finance? If you like being a translator, you certainly like continuous learning. Financial translators must keep up to date with current affairs, financial news, global events. It may be time consuming sometimes, though it is interesting and rewarding. Financial translation involves technical terminology and the knowledge of a special language, which is at the same time informative and emotional. First of all, financial translators need to understand the subject matter very well in order to translate appropriately.

Unfortunately, based on my experience as proofreader and recruiter, there are not so many professional financial translators. There is a lack of training courses in the field of financial translation that teach you the most common traps and give you the basics to understand finance and economics, how to find the resources and develop the appropriate communication skills. I constantly receive mentoring requests from my students and when I go to translation conferences, financial translators are always in very small number. My host Marcel Solé is a passionate trainer of financial translation from English into Spanish, and I am happy we had chance to meet and exchange ideas on the financial translation industry and specifically on teaching financial translation.

In October and November, I will conduct a 5 webinar series on financial translation on Prozcom, preceded by an introductory session on “How to become a successful financial translator”. The webinars will be conducted in Italian and will focus on English and Italian financial terminology. You can learn to be more confident in translating financial statements, economic news, and investment funds. To become a good financial translator, you need to understand. Starting from basic concepts (the Stock Exchange, return, inflation, the banking system), I will go through real-life examples of economic and financial language and frequent documents. You can learn the most common terminology in English and Italian and how to avoid the main tricks and traps for a financial translator (urgent assignments, technical terminology, special language). You can register for one webinar or for the entire series. Why? Because financial translation is not at all boring and could be a very profitable and rewarding specialisation. After more than 20 years translating, I would like to share what I have learned… and still learning.

Chasing money

Francesca Airaghi · Financial Translator

Getting started as a Financial translator

Take the first steps in a high paid specialty field!

financial translator

Go to course

Webinar: Getting started as a financial translator – Financial translation fundamentals

Financial translation is a type of technical translation which involves the conversion of documents, statements, reports, and web content from one language to another. Financial translation is performed by experts with lingistic expertise and a comprehensive grasp of the unique terminology used in this field of specialization. It is an added value and well remunerated job. So this webinar also aims to introduce you to the skills and techniques which you need to understand and translate financial and accounting documents.We will cover the key areas encountered by translators, proofreaders, financiers, economists and journalists and we’ll focus on some general accounting and financial topics that impact all companies, individuals and institutions, as well as specific topics of interest to financial translation.

So, welcome to this interesting and rewarding field of expertise!

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Doing business in China


Surprisingly, many of the visitors to this blog come from China, so  I’d like to tell them: 欢迎! For this reason, today I would like to devote this article to the Middle Kingdom, also known as the Asian giant (gigante asiático, in Spanish).

Emerging superpower

The People’s Republic of China receives continual coverage in the popular press of its emerging superpower status, and has been identified as a rising or emerging economic growth and military superpower by academics and other experts. In fact, the “rise of China” has been named the top news story of the 21st century by the Global Language Monitor, as measured by number of appearances in the global print and electronic media, on the Internet and blogosphere, and in Social Media. The term “Second Superpower” has also been applied by scholars to the possibility that the People’s Republic of China could emerge as a “second superpower,” with global power and influence on par with the United States. The potential for the two countries to form stronger relations to address global issues is sometimes referred to as the Group of Two.

Doing Business with China

Doing Business with China comprises a series of seven self-study modules that develop awareness and understanding of key elements of Chinese business culture, business structures, business traditions and business etiquette.


The modules are packed with hints, tips and practical strategies to enable you to build more productive commercial relationships in China, as well as work and communicate more effectively with Chinese business contacts.

Doing Business in China Online Course

Business in China

China Business 20/20 Insight, written in layman’s terms, addresses China’s complex business environment through a systematic approach. It provides the political, economic, legal, financial and business frameworks within which any meaningful China commercial adventure can be planned and operated.Stakeholders (corporate executives, expatriates, employees, and board members) will better appreciate the nature of the business undertaking by addressing such issues as:The linkages between politics and commerceThe unique brand of Chinese economic policiesThe immature yet evolving Chinese legal frameworkThe role of government in banking and corporate financeThe capabilities and constraints of electronic commerceThe different forms of business organizationsThe cultural framework of China business communicationsThe mindset and attitude of Chinese business executives–.and so forth.With knowledge of the China business environment, all stakeholders will be more cognizant of the rationale for the China strategy, resource allocation, corporate alignment, and vertical and horizontal coordination. This will result in more effective decision making, stronger employee buy-in, heightened investor empathy, more credible corporate governance and better corporate performance.

Joe Y. Eng is President of Eng Communications Associates. As a corporate trainer, coach and business consultant, he has over thirty years of experience with American Fortune 500 companies and Chinese corporations. A native speaker of Mandarin and Cantonese, he received his undergraduate and graduate degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. joe@usasiaexpert.com Tony G. Eng is Research Director at Eng Communications Associates. He has worked for Gateway Computers, Amplicon Financial and Netcel 360 in sales, marketing and business development. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of California at Los Angeles.

The 36 Strategies of the Chinese for Financial Traders 

trading China


Ancient strategies provide a valuable link to enhance your ability to survive and prosper in modern financial markets. In this fascinating book, experienced trader and best-selling author Daryl Guppy explains how The 36 Strategies of the Chinese are applied to trading financial markets. In trading there is rarely a single answer to any trading situation. The best answer, and its effective application, depends on the trader. The strategies by themselves do not guarantee success. The trader’s skill in analyzing and assessing the situation determines how effective he is in selecting and applying the right strategy.

Guppy was introduced to the book of The 36 Strategies of the Chinese by a Chinese friend. An ancient and classic text, it is a compilation of political and military strategies dating back more than 1800 years, drawn from classic Chinese poetry, history, philosophy, biographies and novels.

This book includes specific methods for active investors and traders that are consistent with the meaning of the original ancient strategies. The 36 Strategies of the Chinese for Financial Traders follow the structure of the original36 Strategies of the Chinese. The first 18 strategies are applied when you have the advantage — the luxury of time and resources to examine techniques to recognize and maximize the return from these market opportunities. The second 18 strategies are applied when you are at a disadvantage — they are strategies used against investors and traders to inhibit success. Many of the strategies are enhanced using derivatives.

China commercial law

The Chinese Yuan: Internationalization and Financial Products in China (Wiley Finance Series)

Few topics have attracted as much attention worldwide in recent years as the RMB. These debates have gained added urgency in light of the financial crisis and the topic of RMB revaluation is now being actively debated in countries all over the world from Tunisia to the United States. This book explores the ever-changing role of the RMB and the related derivative products. However, it does so from a view that is heavily influenced by the fallout from the financial crisis as well as the in the context of the increasing maturity of the Chinese capital markets. The author has drawn on his experience as a regulator to provide invaluable views, insights and information on RMB derivative products and the development of this market going forward. Key topics include: Overview of current China economy and its capital market In-depth analysis on the China’s banking system and foreign exchange system Extensive analysis of on-shore and off-shore financial products in China Explanation of the needs and reasons for RMB products innovation Insights into the internationalization of the RMB Not only will this book leave its readers with a much clearer idea of the structure of China’s capital markets but it also gives insights on the market going forward leveraged through Peter Zhang’s many years of experience as both a senior banker and through his integral role in the key regulatory authority of the banking sector, the CBRC.

Dr. Guangping (Peter G.) Zhang served as manager and vice president in various financial institutions including Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS) New York Branch and Chemical Bank head office in New York in the area of over-the-counter derivatives. After working as Vice President for Chase Manhattan Bank in Tokyo, he further broadened his expertise at Harvard Law School. He jointed the Shanghai Futures Exchange in 2003 as Chief Financial Engineering Advisor and Senior Director of Research & Development Center, and the newly-established Supervisory Cooperation Department for Banking Innovation of China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) in 2005 as Deputy Director General. He re-allocated to CRRC Shanghai Bureau as Deputy Director General in 2007. Dr. Zhang is an experienced financial expert with many articles and books published both in English and Chinese including Exotic Options – A Guide to 2 nd Generation Options (1998); Chinese Yuan (RMB) Derivatives Products (2004, English edition), Chinese Yuan Derivatives and Practices (2006, 1 st and 2008, 2 nd , Chinese eds.), and Chinese Yuan Product Innovation, (2010, Chinese ed.). Thomas Chan is an audit partner in KPMG financial services practice with more than 16 years of audit experience at KPMG China. He has comprehensive experience in auditing listed companies, accounting standard conversions and internal control compliance reviews. Thomas has extensive knowledge on operations of and regulatory requirements on commercial; banks, securities firms, trusts, asset management companies, leasing companies and private equity funds. He is a fellow member of both HKICPA and ACCA.

By Financial Translator

Traductor financiero / Traducción financiera


Upcoming Proz Webinar: “Introducción a la traducción financiera”

Introducción a la traducción financiera

Go to webinar

Traducción Financiera

Para dedicarse a la traducción financiera es imprescindi-ble comprender el documento que tenemos enfrente. Si bien no es necesario, por ejemplo, saber calcular un TAE, un PER o el Valor Liquidativo de las participaciones de un fondo de inversión, sí que hay que saber qué son, en qué tipo de documentos y apartados aparecen, cómo se traducen y cómo se adaptan al idioma destino.

La notable diversidad que caracteriza al sector financiero obliga a trabajar con traductores especializados. Éstos entienden los diferentes conceptos contables y financieros, están familiarizados con los diversos tipos de documentos financieros,  la jerga de los mercados, la terminología utilizada comúnmente en inversiones, la gestión de activos, las auditorías contables o los comunicados de prensa.

La traducción financiera es una de las especializaciones mejor remuneradas en el mundo de la traducción y la interpretación. Cada día, multitud de bancos, agencias de gestión de activos, agencias de traducción, empresas de todo tipo… Están buscando buenos traductores financieros. No hay muchos y las tarifas son elevadas. Por ejemplo, por una traducción de un prospectus de fondo de inversión (que puede ocupar seis días de trabajo) es habitual cobrar entre 1.500 y 2.000 €. Así, un buen traductor financiero está cobrando, a día de hoy y de media,  entre 3.000 y 4.000 € al mes, sin renunciar a sus dos meses de vacaciones. También hay una demanda importante de financieros con idiomas por parte de los empresarios, según constatamos en una entrevista mantenida con Randstad.

Algo que hay que tener en cuenta es que cada empresa suele utilizar un tipo de terminología específica (aunque muchas veces se refieran al mismo concepto), por lo que cuando se trabaja con memorias de traducción (TM) es preferible crear una para cada cliente.

Detalles del webinar

La traducción Financiera es una de las especializaciones mejor remuneradas y con las tarifas más altas que existen en el mundo de la traducción. Antes que nada, es preciso poner las finanzas en su contexto y conocer los diferentes tipos de documentos financieros. Con este curso entenderás a qué hace referencia cada documento y pondrás el primer pie en la traducción técnica financiera.

En este curso nos introduciremos en la traducción contable y financiera, hablaremos de sus conceptos básicos, del tipo de documentación que podemos traducir y de la clase de clientes a los que debemos dirigirnos. Definiremos qué son y cómo se traducen al inglés un albarán, una factura, qué son las cuentas anuales de una empresa (balance, cuenta de pérdidas y ganancias y la memoria), así como qué son los fondos de inversión y qué tipo de documentación generan.
Target audience
Traductores que desean especializarse en la traducción técnica financiera.
Learning objectives
* Introducirse en el mundo de la traducción financiera.
* Entender el contexto de las finanzas y la traducción de sus elementos básicos.
*Entender los conceptos de activos (assets) y pasivos (liabilities) financieros
* Conocer la documentación básica que genera la actividad financiera.
* Entender qué son los fondos de inversión y qué documentación generan
* Saber qué tipología de clientes conforma nuestro público objetivo.

Bio: Marcel Soler es Traductor titulado en Traducción Financiera y Proficiency in English, Técnico Superior en Marketing y Finanzas y Técnico en Comercio Internacional. Marcel Solé, acreditado por la Universidad de Cambridge con el International Certificate in Financial English, está reconocido por las principales auditorías, como Ernst & Young, KPMG, y PricewaterhouseCoopers. Ha cursado Financial Markets con Robert J. Shiller de la Universidad de Yale. Durante diez años ha ejercido como traductor y coordinador en proyectos de envergadura en las áreas de las finanzas, el comercio, la comunicación y el marketing para entidades y editoriales de gran prestigio internacional. También ha trabajado para conocidas escuelas de negocio que figuran en los rankings del Financial Times y The Economist. Asimismo, Marcel Soler tiene una importante experiencia docente como profesor de inglés y de traducción financiera.

By Financial Translator

Traducción financiera

Webinar en Proz: “Introducción a la Traducción Financiera”

ProZ.com global directory of translation services

Last minute – 6 seats remain

Start time:In your timezone: 20 Dec 17:00 CET (GMT+1)  

Proz Webinar “Introducción a la Traducción Financiera”

More info

In GMT, for reference:
Dec 20 16:00 GMT

Duration: 60 minutes.

Check what time the course is running in your local time here.

Webinar in Proz: Introducción a la Traducción Financiera

ProZ.com global directory of translation services

This is just a reminder that only a few seats remain for the upcoming session to be conducted by an experienced trainer, Marcel Soler:

Marcel Solé
Traductor Financiero

December 20 Introducción a la Traducción Financiera

En este curso te introducirás en los conceptos financieros básicos y en las peculiaridades de la traducción financiera. Verás qué son y en qué contexto actúan las finanzas. Describiremos la principal documentación financiera y traduciremos sus conceptos básicos. Por último hablaremos de qué tipo de clientes demandan traducción financiera.

Course program:

* Qué son las finanzas
* En qué contexto operan las finanzas
* Cuentas Anuales (Annual Accounts)
* Balance (Balance Sheet)
* Cuenta de Pérdidas y ganancias (Profit and Loss Account)
* Memoria (Annual Report)
* Auditoría (Audit Report)
* Fondos de Inversión (Investment Funds)
* Factsheet
* Prospectus

Even if you do not attend the online session, you will still have unlimited access to the video recording and training materials (available within one working week after the session).


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