Category Archives: Etymology

Etymology of “Stock Exchange”

Origins of the Stock Exchange

The stock exchange is a place where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as stocks or shares, bonds and other financial instruments.

There is no consensus on the place where corporate stocks were first traded. Some see the key event in the founding of the Dutch East India Company, while others claim that a share market existed as far back as ancient Rome. In any case, Amsterdam Stock Exchange was established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company.

first stock exchange
Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Germany

However, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (in German, Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse), established in 1585,seems to be the oldest stock exchange in Europe. As for the  London Royal Exchange, it was inaugurated by Elizabeth I in 1571. The New York Stock Exchange was set up in 1792.

 

stock market
City of London: Mansion House, by Chris Downer

Alternative names for Stock Exchange are securities exchange or bourse.

Etymology of “Stock Exchange”

It is made up by two words: stock and exchange. Let’s see them separately:

Etymology of “Stock”

The original Stock Market  was a fish and meat market in the City of London near Mansion House. It was so called probably because it was located in the same site of a former stocks (which were large wooden blocks for punishment used in the early 14th  century).

etymology stock market
Punishment wooden stocks photograph by BabelStone

Etymology of “Exchange”

To exhange is the act “of giving one thing and receiving another in return”. It stems from Anglo-French eschaunge, Old French eschange (Modern French échange), from Late Latin excambium, from excambiare, and ultimately from Latin ex “out”+ cambire “barter”.

Stock exchange

 

origin of the Stock exchange
Royal exchange, London

Difference between Stock Market and Stock Exchange

Although often used interchangeably, they are not exactly the same. The stock market is the facility where the buyers and sellers meet to buy and sell securities, whereas  the Stock Exchange is the entity  that provides a system for trading stocks and manages services such as the listing of stocks in the stock exchange.

10 Biggest Stock Exchanges by market capitalization 

  1. New York Stock Exchange, United States
  2. NASDAQ, United States
  3. London Stock Exchange Group, United Kingdom
  4. Japan Exchange Group, Japan
  5. Shanghai Stock Exchange, China
  6. Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Hong Kong (SAR China)
  7. Euronext, United Kingdom, Belgium, Portugal, France, and the Netherlands
  8. Shenzhen Stock Exchange, China
  9. TMX Group, Canada
  10. Deutsche Borse AG, Germany

Stock exchange in other languages

Arabic: تداول الاسهم (tadawul al’ashum)
Basque: Burtsa
Catalan: Borsa
Chinese (Mandarin): 股票交易(gǔpiào jiāoyì)
Danish: Børs
Dutch: Beurs
Esperanto: Borso
French: Bourse f; marché m financier
Galician: Bolsa de valores
Greek: χρηματιστήριο(chrimatistírio)
German: Börse
Hebrew: בּוּרסָה
Hungarian: Tőzsde
Italian: Borsa valori
Irish: Stocmhalartán
Korean: 증권 거래소(jeung-gwon geolaeso)
Latin: stock commutationem
Polish: Giełda Papierów Wartościowych
Portuguese: Bolsa de Valores
Russian: фондовая биржа(fondovaya birzha)
Spanish: Bolsa; Mercado de valores
Swahili: soko la hisa
Turkish: Borsa

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Etymology of “Economy”
Etymology of “Finance”


Etymology of “Translation”

What is the origin of the word “Translation”?

It is the process of translating and adapting words or a piece of writing from one language into another. It is also a full-time career and the main source of income for many translators and interpreters all over the world.

Throughout history, civilizations have required translators and interpreters to share their culture, wisdom and works with the rest of the world. Almost every historical register, religious book, masterpiece of world literature,  invention patent, major agreement or international treaty has been through the hands and eyes of translators. The translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek in the 3rd century BC is regarded as the first major translation in the Western world.

origin of the word translation
Translator addressing his master. Unknown Flemish artist. Late 15th Century.

This work has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.

In a way, translators are the bridge not only between different languages, but also between periods of history, helping people all over the world break the language barrier. Translators and interpreters spend a lot of time transferring and adapting texts and speeches from the source to the target language. So it goes without saying that the origin of the noun translation —and, by extension, (to) translate and translator—, deserves to be analyzed on this blog.

Thomas Eakins
The Translator, Portrait of Monsignor Hugh T. Henry (1902), by Thomas Eakins, American Catholic Historical Society,

This work has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.

Etymological root of the word Translation

Translation derives from the Latin word Translatio, meaning “to carry across“:

trans, (“across”)

+

ferre, (“to carry” or “to bring”).

Latin> We can find the word trānslātiō in the nominative and vocative cases.

Case Singular Plural
nominative trānslātiō trānslātiōnēs
genitive trānslātiōnis trānslātiōnum
dative trānslātiōnī trānslātiōnibus
accusative trānslātiōnem trānslātiōnēs
ablative trānslātiōne trānslātiōnibus
vocative trānslātiō trānslātiōnēs

As it seems, there was an intermediate step, when English adopted the word from Old French translacion (traduction in modern French).

So, not surprisingly, the origin of Translation is Latin… But what about Greek?

The Ancient Greek term for “translation”, μετάφρασις (metaphrasis, “a speaking across”), has supplied  English with “metaphrase”, which, despite having a similar meaning, is not exactly the same. Metaphrase means a literal, verbatim translation, as opposed to a paraphrase. It is also is also the translation of poetry into prose.

origin of the word translation translate translating

With regards to the use of the word in the sense of  “rendering an expression or speech into another language”, Leonardo Bruni, a Tuscan humanist, historian and statesman, was the first to use the verb tradurre to refer to the art of translation and Robert Estienne, a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris, was the first to use the noun traduction (French for translation) in the sense of rendering of a message or text into another language.

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Etymology of “Economy”

What is the origin of the word Economy?

We learned earlier about the origin of the word finance. Today we will focus on the etymology of the term economy, which at the beginning had a somewhat different connotation from the one we are used today.

Nowadays, Economy refers to the management of resources, such as money, materials, or labor… or the system or range of economic activity in a country, region, or community, whereas Economics refers to the social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and with the theory and management of economies or economic systems.

Economist, economize, economical… all these terms stem from the same word. So, let’s have a closer look.

Etymology of the word Economy

origin of the word Economy

The first part of the term Economy, Eco, is derived from Ancient Greek Oikos (οἶκος, plural  οἶκοι), which meant “house, abode, dwelling”. The Ancient Greeks used the word Oikos to refer to three related but different in nature household categories, namely,  the family, the family’s property (slaves, farmland…), and the house.

origin of the word economy

Nemo (νέμω, némō), the second part of the term, also stems from the Ancient Greek and means “(to) manage, distribute;(to) deal out or dispense”.

Hence, the word Oikonomia (οἰκονομία) meaning “the management  and administration of a household”.

origin of economy

The first recorded sense of the word “economy” is in the phrase “the management of œconomic affairs” , which was found in a monastic work possibly drawn up in 1440. “Economy” is later recorded in a variety of senses, such as “thrift” or “administration”. The most generally used current sense, meaning “the economic system of a country or an area”, as it seems, did not appear until the 17th century.

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Etymology of Finance

Etymology: Origin of the word Finance

Meaning

The word finance has different but interrelated meanings, namely, 1) the management of large amounts of money -specially by governments or large companies, 2) giving monetary suport for an enterprise and 3)  the monetary resources and affairs of a State, organization or person.

Etymology

Financius, from the noun finis (“end”) is the Latin etymological origin of the modern English word Finance.

It migrated from Latin to old French as finaunce,  from finer ‎(to pay a ransom), whence also English fine ‎(to pay a penalty).

In fact, the original English sense was “ending”. The sense  “ending/satisfying a debt” came from French influence.

So in the mid 15th century the sense was “ransom”, and later in the same century, “taxation”.

It was first recorded in the sense of managing money in 1770.

1- Old French: Fin

2- Old French: Finer English: Fine

3- Late Middle English: Finance

Finance in Many languages

Language Ways to say finance
Albanian financë
Basque Finantzaketa
Belarusian фінансы
Bosnian finansije
Bulgarian финанси
Catalan finances
Croatian financije
Czech finance
Danish finans
Dutch financiën
Estonian rahandus
Finnish rahoittaa
French financement
Galician finanzas
German Finanzen
Greek Οικονομικών
Hungarian pénzügy
Icelandic fjármál
Irish airgeadas
Italian finanza
Latvian finanses
Lithuanian finansai
Macedonian финансии
Maltese finanzi
Norwegian finans
Polish finanse
Portuguese finanças
Romanian finanțe
Russian финансы
Serbian финансије
Slovak financie
Slovenian finance
Spanish finanzas
Swedish finans
Ukrainian фінанси
Welsh cyllid
Yiddish פינאַנצן

Saying Finance in Asian Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Armenian ֆինանսներ
Azerbaijani maliyyə
Bengali অন্যদের
Chinese Simplified 财政
Chinese Traditional 財政
Georgian ფინანსთა
Gujarati નાણા
Hindi वित्त
Hmong hais txog nyiaj txiag
Japanese ファイナンス
Kannada ಹಣಕಾಸು
Kazakh қаржы
Khmer ហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ
Korean 재원
Lao ທາງດ້ານການເງິນ
Malayalam ധനകാര്യ
Marathi अर्थ
Mongolian санхүү
Myanmar (Burmese) ဘဏ္ဍာရေး
Nepali वित्त
Sinhala මූල්ය
Tajik молия
Tamil நிதி
Telugu ఫైనాన్స్
Thai การเงิน
Urdu خزانہ
Uzbek moliya
Vietnamese tài chánh

Saying Finance in Middle-Eastern Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Arabic تمويل
Hebrew מימון
Persian امور مالی
Turkish maliye

Saying Finance in African Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Afrikaans finansies
Chichewa zachuma
Hausa finance
Igbo ego
Sesotho tsa ditjhelete
Somali Maaliyadda
Swahili fedha
Yoruba Isuna
Zulu ezezimali

Saying Finance in Austronesian Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Cebuano finance
Filipino pananalapi
Indonesian keuangan
Javanese finance
Malagasy bola
Malay kewangan
Maori pūtea



Saying Finance in Other Foreign Languages

Language Ways to say finance
Esperanto financoj
Haitian Creole finans
Latin oeconomicis

Financial Translator