Category Archives: English language

New Year’s Eve Quotes

I thank you all for following Financial Translator throughout the year with some New year’s Eve quotes. May you be blessed enough to spend this new year with your family, friends and loved ones. Be grateful and you will have only good things come your way. Happy New Year 2018!


Be at war with your vices, at peace with your neighbors, and let every new year find you a better man. Benjamin Franklin.


If you asked me for my New Year Resolution, it would be to find out who I am. Cyril Cusack.


My New Year’s resolution is to stick to a good workout plan that will keep me healthy and happy. James Lafferty.


Your success and happiness lies in you. Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties. Helen Keller.


And now we welcome the new year. Full of things that have never been. Rainer Maria Rilke.


The new year stands before us, like a chapter in a book, waiting to be written. We can help write that story by setting goals. Melody Beattie.

I hope that in this year to come, you make mistakes. Because if you are making mistakes, then you are making new things, trying new things, learning, living, pushing yourself, changing yourself, changing your world. You’re doing things you’ve never done before, and more importantly, you’re doing something. Neil Gaiman.


Hope smiles from the threshold of the year to come, whispering, ‘It will be happier.’ Alfred Lord Tennyson.


Write it on your heart that every day is the best day in the year. Ralph Waldo Emerson.


“Tonight’s December thirty-first,
Something is about to burst.
The clock is crouching, dark and small,
Like a time bomb in the hall.
Hark, it’s midnight, children dear.
Duck! Here comes another year!”
― Ogden Nash.


“Ring out the old, ring in the new,
Ring, happy bells, across the snow:
The year is going, let him go;
Ring out the false, ring in the true.”
― Alfred Tennyson, In Memoriam.


“The New Year is a painting not yet painted; a path not yet stepped on; a wing not yet taken off! Things haven’t happened as yet! Before the clock strikes twelve, remember that you are blessed with the ability to reshape your life!”
― Mehmet Murat ildan


“There is nothing magical about the flip of the calendar, but it represents a clean break, a new hope, and a blank canvas.”
― Jason Soroski


“New year, new blessing, new grace and new opportunities, never allow the failures of the past to rub you of the blessings in the new year.”
― Bamigboye Olurotimi


“Let all the failures of your past year be your best guide in the New Year!”
― Mehmet Murat ildan

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Oxford Dictionaries’ 2017 Word of the Year

“Youthquake”: Oxford Dictionaries’ 2017 Word of the Year

After 2015’s Tears of joy emoji and 2016’s post-truth, “Youthquake” — defined as “a significant cultural, political or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people” — takes the title this year.

Casper Grathwohl, The President of Oxford Dictionarie explains why he’s particularly happy about this year’s choice in a post:

“We chose youthquake based on its evidence and linguistic interest. But most importantly for me, at a time when our language is reflecting our deepening unrest and exhausted nerves, it is a rare political word that sounds a hopeful note. Sometimes you pick a word as the word of the year because you recognise that it has arrived, but other times you pick one that is knocking at the door and you want to help usher in … I think this past year calls for a word we can all rally behind.”

The word itself is not exactly the latest trend in neologisms; in fact, it is  almost 50 years old and it was already listed in Oxford Dictionaries.  It was first coined in the 1960s by Vogue editor Diana Vreeland to describe how British youth were changing music and fashion around the world.

Other terms such as Antifa —militant opposition to fascism—, Broflake —a man who is readily upset or offended by progressive attitudes that conflict with his more conventional or conservative views—or Milkshake Duck —a person or thing that initially inspires delight on social media but is soon revealed to have a distasteful or repugnant past— also made it onto Oxfor Dictionarie’s Word of the Year shortlist.


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Idioms illustrated


Let off steam (EN) Desahogarse (SP)

What is an idiom?

An idiom  is a phrase or an expression with a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom’s figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. There are thousands of idioms, occurring frequently in all languages. It is estimated that there are at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language. From the Latin word idiom, “special property”, and, in turn, from Ancient Greek: ἰδίωμα, “special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity”, f. Ancient Greek: ἴδιος, translit. ídios, “one’s own”)


(to) dig one’s heels in (EN) Mantenerse en sus trece (SP)


un día de perros en inglés

quedarse en blanco


(to) blow sb’s mind (EN)  Impresionar / Dejar flipado a alguien (SP)


(to) talk turkey (EN) Hablando en plata (SP)

to find one's feet

(to) find one’s feet (EN) Situarse. Ponerse al día / corriente (SP)


Ignorance is bliss (EN) Bendita ignorancia (SP)

Shortened form of Has the cat got your tongue? It means trying to compel or urge someone to speak up when they are being unnecessarily quiet

Business idioms and jargon illustrated

financial jargon

games on words

Business idioms

Business idioms and financial jargon illustrated

business idioms

An idiom is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning whereas Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context —usually a specific trade or profession— and may not be well understood outside of it. Here you have a list of some of the most common idioms and jargon used in business. I’ve also included some sayings and terms that may come in handy in some business situations. This post will be regularly updated with new idioms and jargon.

A Company man


  1. A company man. Spanish: hombre de empresa. Business idiom.

Captain of industry

2. Captain of industry. Spanish: jefe de la industria. Business idiom.

(to) cut one’s losses

3. (to) cut one’s losses in Spanish: recortar gastos. Business idiom.

(to) go public

4. (to) go public. Spanish: Salir a bolsa. Financial jargon.

(to) go belly up

business idioms

5. (to) go belly up . Spanish: Irse a pique. Business idiom.

There’s no such thing as a free lunch


6. There’s no such thing as a free lunch. Spanish: No hay duros a cuatro pesetas.  Saying.

Green shoots

expresiones en inglés expressions in Spanish

7. Green shoots (the first signs of an improvement in an economy). Spanish: brotes verdes. Business idiom.

Chicken feed

money idioms economy idioms modismos sobre economía y dinero

8. Chicken feed (a very small amount of money). Business idiom.

Big fish

business idioms

9. Big fish in Spanish: pez gordo. Business idiom.

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10. Shark (e.g. loan shark). Shark in Spanish: tiburón (also in a figurative sense). Financial jargon.

800-pound gorilla

business idioms

11. 800-pound gorilla. Business idiom.

(to) foot the bill

economy and finance idioms

12. (to) foot the bill. (to) foot the bill in Spanish: pagar la factura (sometimes called “la dolorosa”). Business idiom.

(to) be broke

13. (to) be broke (to have no money). (to) be broke in Spanish: estar sin blanca. Business idiom.

Money doesn’t grow on trees

money idioms

14. Money doesn’t grow on trees / Money don’t grow on trees.  Saying.

Native speakers will often use the form “Money don’t grow on trees” in informal situations as it’s faster to prononce “don’t”, due to the fact it has one less syllable. In Spanish “El dinero no cae del cielo” (literally money doesn’t fall from the sky) conveys the same meaning.

(to) be rolling in money

money idioms

15. (to) be rolling in money / (to) be rolling in it. In Spanish, “estar forrado”. Business idiom. Also: (to) be made of money

Money talks

money idioms

16. Money talks (you can do what you want with money). In Spanish one cas say “poderoso caballero es don dinero” (literally, Mr Money is a powerful gentleman) conveying the same meaning. Business idiom.

Money doesn’t give happiness

money idioms

17. Money doesn’t give happiness. In Spanish, “el dinero no da la felicidad”.  Saying.

A rising tide lifts all boats

business idioms

18. A rising tide lifts all boats.  Saying.

Time is money

financial idioms

19. Time is money (e.g. In other words, in international trade, time is money). In spanish “el tiempo es oro” (literally time is gold).  Saying.

(to) call a loan

finance idioms

20. (to) call a loan. Financial jargon.

Ill-gotten gains

business idioms

21. Ill-gotten gains (e.g. These ill-gotten gains are laundered and go into circulation in the legal economy). Spanish: ganancias ilícitas. Business idiom.

Money laundering

financial jargon

22. Money laundering is the process of transforming the profits of crime and corruption into ostensibly ‘legitimate’ assets. (e.g.  The EU had also introduced measures to monitor and prevent money-laundering). Spanish: blanqueo de dinero. Financial jargon.

Money for jam

economy idioms

23. Money for jam (e.g. Selling cold drinks with a vending machine  is money for jam when it is very hot).· also money for old rope. Spanish: dinero fácil. Business idiom.

(to) be worth its weight in gold

valer su peso en oro en inglés

24. (to) be worth its weight in gold (e.g. His ideas are worth its weight in gold). Spanish: valer su peso en oro.  Saying.

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win win picture

25. It’s a win-win (Beneficial to each of the two parties). Spanish: ventajoso para todos. Business idiom.

(to) skyrocket

financial jargon financial idioms

26. (to) skyrocket. Spanish: dispararse. Financial jargon.

Margin call

financial idioms financial jargon

27. Margin call. Spanish: ajuste de márgenes. Financial jargon.

Liquid assets

finance liquid assets

28. Liquid assets. Spanish: activos líquidos. Financial jargon.

Cash cow

business jargon business idioms

29. Cash cow. Cell phone accessories are a cash cow for our business. Spanish: vaca lechera, gallina de los huevos de oro… Business idiom.

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Bull market

bull market stock market stock exchange

30. Bull market. Spanish: mercado alcista. Financial jargon.

Bear Market / Bearish market

31. Bear Market: A stock market where a majority of investors are selling (“bears”), causing overall stock prices to drop. Financial jargon.


financial jargon

32. Bear market. Spanish: mercado bajista. Financial jargon.

Venture capital

financial jargon

33. Venture capital. Spanish: Capital riesgo. Business idiom.

Hostile takeover

opa hostil en inglés

34. Hostile takeover. Spanish: compra hostil. (Hostile bid: OPA hostil). Financial jargon.

Ninja loan

financial jargon idioms

35. Ninja loans. Financial jargon.

Real-Estate bubble

housing bubble property bubble

36. Real-estate bubble. Also: housing bubble or property bubble. Spanish: burbuja inmobiliaria. Financial jargon.

Tax haven


37. Tax haven or tax shelter. Spanish: paraíso fiscal. Financial jargon.

A debt paid is a friend kept


friends and debts money

38. [Saying] A debt paid is a friend kept.  Saying.

Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth


39. [Saying] Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth French: Un tiens vaut mieux que deux tu l’auras.  Saying.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

40. [Saying] A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.  Saying.

All that glitters is not gold

sayings dichos

41. All that glitters is not gold.  Saying.

A promise is a promise

A promise is a promise

42.  A promise is a promise.  Saying.

Don’t put all your eggs in one basket


no pongas todos los huevos en la misma cesta

43. [Saying]  Don’t put all your eggs in the same basket

A square deal

44. Square deal (A fair agreement). Spanish: trato justo. Business idiom.

Nest egg

business idioms

45. Nest egg. Spanish: fondo de reserva. Business idiom.

Short selling

venta a corto

46. Short selling. Spanish: venta a corto, venta al descubierto. Financial jargon.

Stocks / Shares

tipos de acciones

47. Blue chips           48. Growth stocks           49. Defensive stocks         50. Income stocks           51. Value stocks        Financial jargon.

Junk bond

financial jargon

52. Junk bond: A bond which is considered below “investment grade” due to a significant risk of default by the issuer. The interest rate is higher in order to compensate holders for that risk. Junk bond in Spanish: bono basura.

A penny saved is a penny earned


business idioms

53. A penny saved is a penny earned.  Saying.


Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

54. EBITDA Financial and accounting jargon.

Credit Rating

financial jargon

55. Credit rating. Spanish: calificación crediticia. Financial jargon.

Asset management

financial jargon

56. Asset Management. Spanish: gestión de activos. Financial jargon.



57. Leverage: In finance, leverage  is any technique involving the use of borrowed funds in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after tax income from the asset and asset price appreciation will exceed the borrowing cost. Leveraging enables gains and losses to be multiplied. Spanish: apalancamiento. Financial jargon.

(to) keep one’s head above water

financial idioms

58. (to) keep one’s head above water. Spanish: mantenerse a flote. Business idiom.

On a shoestring

economy idioms

59. On a shoestring > The documentary was made on a shoestring. Spanish: con recursos mínimos, con un bajo presupuesto. Business idiom.

Insider trading

busines idioms

60. Insider trading > The use of confidential information by an Associate for personal business and insider trading is strictly prohibited. Spanish: tráfico de información privilegiada. Financial jargon.

Chinese wall

financial jargon

61. Chinese wall >  A set of rules and procedures – known as a Chinese wall – have been established to prevent inside information from reaching the areas responsible for the management of the ECB’s foreign reserves and own funds portfolio. Chinese wall in Spanish: muralla china. Business and financial jargon.

Fair trade

comercio justo

62. Fair trade. Spanish: comercio justo.

Economy of the common good

économie du bien commun

63. Economy for the common good

Comparative advantage

64. Comparative advantage. Spanish: ventaja comparativa.

Absolute advantage

ecomomics foreign trade

65. Absolute advantage. Spanish: ventaja absoluta.

Monkey business

business idioms

66. Monkey Business. Business idiom.

Banker’s hours

67. Banker’s hours. Business idiom.

Interest rates

financial jargon

68. Fixed and floating interests rates. Spanish: tipos de cambio fijos y variables.

Quantitative easing

flexibilización cuantitativa

69. Quantitative easing in Spanish: expansión cuantitativa

Above board

business idioms

70. Above board  > The negociations were long and at times quite difficult, but completely open and above board. Above board in Spanish: sin trampa ni cartón, trato justo. Business idiom.

Rags to riches

Money idioms

71. Rags to riches. Money idiom.


Golden handshake

business idioms

72. Golden handshake. Business idiom.

Talk shop

talk business

73. (to) talk shop. Business idiom.

Rome was not built in a day


74. Rome wasn’t built in a day. Saying.

Out of the frying pan into the fire

idioms in Spanish

75. Out of the frying pan into the fire. (French: de Charybde en Scylla). Saying.

Market capitalization

financial jargon

76. Market capitalization. Financial jargon.

(to) be sky high

economy idioms

77. (to) be sky-high. Business idiom. Spanish: estar por las nubes. Business idiom



78. Wrapper. Financial Jargon.


It’s good fishing in troubled waters



79. It’s good fishing in troubled waters. Saying.

Hard cash

contante y sonante en inglés

80. Hard cash (meaning coins or notes, but not cheques or  credit cards). Idiom.

Double-edged sword

arma de doble filo en inglés

81. Double-edged sword

Success and failure

two sides of the same coin

82. Success and failure are two sides of a coin called risk, financial translator.

Never invest more than you can afford to lose


risk meme

83. Never invest more than you can afford to lose (business saying)

High risk high reward

finance saying

83. High risk, high reward (business saying)

(to be) born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth


economy idioms

84. (to be) born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth: (to be) born into a wealthy and privileged family. Idiom.

Back-of-the-envelope calculation

business idioms

85. Back-of-the-enveloipe calculation: quick approximate calculation done informally.  Rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as an envelope.

(to) have deep pockets

(to) have deep pockets

86. (to) Have deep pockets: (to) have a lot of money or abundant financial resources.

(to) be ahead of the game

87. (to) stay / be ahead of the way. to know more about the most recent developments in a particular field than the companies one is competing against. Spanish: Llevar la delantera.

Quit while you’re ahead


business idioms

88. Quit while you’re  ahead: don’t try to improve sth that is already accomplished, speacially if it is rewarding but risky.

Blank cheque

business idioms

89. Blank cheque (When someone is given an unlimitted freedom of action. A grant of complete authority to spend an unlimited amount of money, or to take other actions without restraint.) · Generally, courts have held that the First Amendment does not give people of faith a blank check to ignore the law. Spanish: Cheque en blanco.

(to) be coining it

to be coining money

90. (to) be coining it:  to be earning a lot of money. Also: (to) be coining money or (to) be minting it/minting money.  Spanish: Estar montado en el dólar.

Ballpark figure/number

business idioms

91. Ballpark number / figure. Spanish: una cifra aproximada.

(to) corner the market

business idioms

92. (to) corner the market. Spanish: dominar el mercado.

Grasp all, lose all

93. Grasp all, lose all. Spanish: la avaricia rompe el saco.

(to) Run the numbers

business idioms

94. (to) run the numbers = (to) do the numbers. Spanish: echar cuentas.

License to make money

business idioms

95. Licence (UK) License (US)  to print money. Spanish: una máquina de hacer dinero.

For a song

business idioms

96. For a song (very cheap). Spanish: por cuatro perras.

Think outside the box

business idioms

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¿Qué es el Globish?

¿Qué es el Globish?

Definición de Globish

Globish es un término formado por las palabras Global e English y se puede definir como una lengua auxiliar internacional. Es una versión reducida y simplificada del idioma inglés. Se caracteriza por usar sólo 1500 palabras, a partir de las cuales construye las frases. Utiliza un vocabulario básico y una sintaxis simplificada, no recurre a los phrasal verbs, ni a los localismos, modismos, refranes, giros… Su creador no lo define como un idioma, sino más bien como una herramienta para que gente de todo el mundo sin un alto nivel de inglés pueda comunicarse rápidamente.

Origen del término Globish

El neologismo Globish —por cierto, un nombre registrado en el registro de la propiedad intelectual como sistema de comunicación—  fue propuesto por Jean-Paul Nerrière, ex presidente de marketing de IBM. Nerrière afirma que no es un idioma, sino la base común que los hablantes no ingleses adoptan en los negocios internacionales.

De todos modos, parece que la primera referencia al Globish la encontramos en 1997 en la publicación Christian Science Monitor, aunque se refería a algo distinto: al conjunto de dialectos del inglés hablados fuera de las zonas angloparlantes tradicionales.

En 1998, y en otro sentido, Madhukar Gogate, vuelve a utilizar el término Globish para proponer su inglés global simplificado pensado para mejorar la ortografía.

Es importante señalar en este artículo que ya antes, en 1930, Charles k. Ogden había hecho una tentativa de simplificar el inglés con su libro  A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar (1930). Llamó al invento Basic English.

Nerrière, que acudía a muchos congresos y simposios internacionales en calidad de director de marketing de IBM, observaba como un argentino y un japonés se entendían mucho mejor que el mismo japonés y un estadounidense.

Por este motivo, Nerrière presenta el globish como un lenguaje natural, que de hecho ya se da en el mundo real, y que, a diferencia de un lenguaje artificialmente construido (como podría ser el esperanto), fundamenta su marco normativo en la observación.

Así, en 2004 Jean-Paul se puso manos a la obra y empezó a codificar su nuevo inglés global.

Finalmente, en 2009 publicó, junto con David Hon, el libro “Globish the World Over”, titulado en español “No hable inglés, hable Globish” y en francés “Don’t speak English, parlez Globish”. Hasta la fecha, el libro ha sido traducido a 12 idiomas y fue un super ventas en Japón. Hoy incluso existe una fundación en Australia llamada Globish Foundation.

  Parlez Globish ! : Don't speak English... (ED ORGANISATION) de [Nerrière, Jean-Paul]

Clica en la imagen para más información

Nerrière observó patrones (que los hablantes no nativos de inglés utilizaban para comunicarse entre ellos en conferencias internacionales) a partir de los cuales desarrolló un marco normativo para facilitar y acelerar el proceso en el que dos hablantes no nativos pueden comunicarse entre ellos.

Críticas al Globish

Las críticas que ha recibido el globish apuntan a que no existen pruebas empíricas de que el globish se base realmente en observaciones, y ello pone en entredicho la afirmación de Nerrière de que es un lenguaje natural.

También se le ha criticado que en la promulgación de un sistema que debería ser global, subyacen no pocos intereses comerciales, ya que su creador registró el nombre, cosa que no hizo L.L. Zamenhof con el esperanto.

Finalmente, ha recibido críticas de que esconde un cierto imperialismo, ya que no deja de ser un subconjunto de un solo idioma: el inglés (a diferencia del Esperanto, que integraba diferentes idiomas).

El globish, hablado por gente que no tiene un alto nivel de inglés, puede llevar a errores. Es conocido el caso del finlandés que declaró “I enjoy being mentally challenged”. Un periodista que probablemente no tenía un alto nivel de competencia en lengua inglesa, lo publicó en la portada de un periódico. Alguien no tardó en caer en la cuenta de que “I enjoy being mentally challenged” significa “Disfruto de ser discapacitado mental” cuando él quería decir “Me encanta que me reten mentalmente”.

En el otro extremo, podría darse el caso de que un hablante nativo de inglés llegara a ser incompetente en globish y que no se pudiera hacer entender (por su uso de localismos, phrasal verbs, modismos, giros…)

Ventajas del Globish

Su sistema ha caído en gracia incluso en el mundo anglosajón. Su creador es bueno promocionando ideas abstractas, por lo que podría conseguir más difusión que el Basic English de Ogden o incluso que el Esperanto de Zamenhof.

Para alguien que parta de cero, un principiante (ya sea beginner o false beginner) puede resultar muy útil para adquirir unas habilidades básicas que le permitan comunicarse rápidamente con todo el mundo.


A modo de conclusión diría que siempre es preferible adquirir un buen nivel de inglés, ser competente  en la actual lingua franca; y a partir de ahí lanzarse a otros idiomas, aunque entiendo que eso lleva tiempo y no todo el mundo es un language freak.

Así pues, como puente o “campamento base” que permita comunicarse rudimentariamente con gente de todo el mundo hasta que no se consiga un nivel de competencia adecuado, podría argumentarse que resulta práctico y muy rápido de aprender. Al fin y al cabo, 1500 palabras se pueden adquirir en uno o dos meses.

Quizás si se ve como un inglés para principiantes, todo cobra más sentido.

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Diferentes acentos del idioma inglés

Diferentes acentos del inglés con explicaciones y vídeos

acento británico, escocés, irlandés, galés, acento americano, acento australiano, acento jamaicano, acento nigeriano, acento neozelandés, acento indio, gibraltareño…

El inglés es la primera lengua en el Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Irlanda y Canadá (con el permiso del francés en Quebec) y es lengua oficial en más de 40 países.

Como ocurre con el español, en inglés existen muchos acentos diferentes. Sólo en las Islas Británicas podemos encontrar varios acentos, que obedecen a razones geográficas, históricas y socio-económicas.

> No es mi intención aquí hacer un tratado de lingüística, ni entrar a valorar si se trata de variantes dialectales o registros, ya que esto forma parte de un debate filológico más amplio que aún no está cerrado. Por eso aquí hablamos sólo de acentos, que según la RAE es el “conjunto de las particularidades fonéticas, rítmicas y melódicas que caracterizan el habla de un país, región o ciudad”. En lingüística, el término dialecto hace referencia a una de las posibles variedades de una lengua; habitualmente se usa el término dialecto para referirse a una variante geográfica de una lengua asociada con una determinada zona.

Como es bien sabido, el Imperio Británico dejó una impronta lingüística en muchos de sus territorios. La combinación de varios factores (como la procedencia de los colonos o la influencia de los pueblos indígenas) dio lugar a diferentes acentos del inglés, cada uno con sus peculiaridades  fonéticas,  ortográficas, semánticas y de vocabulario.

acentos en inglés

Mi intención es ir actualizando esta publicación con más acentos y vídeos. De momento podréis escuchar inglés británico estándar, inglés americano estándar, inglés australiano, inglés neozelandés, inglés nigeriano, inglés jamaicano e inglés indio, a parte, también veréis -y podréis escuchar- acentos como el escocés, el irlandés o el galés. Espero que te resulte interesante.

Inglés británico

Antes que nada, decir que hay varios tipos de acentos en inglés británico. Yo mismo he vivido en Newcastle Upon Tyne (acento geordie, que es casi un dialecto), en Londres (donde podía oír un montón de acentos diferentes, con especial protagonismo del cockney y según en que zonas “pijas” el RP o Received Pronounciation) y en Edinburgo (cuya belleza me abrumó, pero cuyo acento me dio no pocos quebraderos de cabeza).  Veamos y oigamos aquí algunos acentos genuinamente británicos:

Standard English / Inglés estándar 

Antes que nada, una aclaración muy importante: El estudio de la RP (Received Pronounciation) se refiere exclusivamente a la pronunciación, mientras que “Standard English“, “Queen’s English“, “Oxford English” y “BBC English” también se ocupan de cuestiones tales como la gramática, el vocabulario o el estilo. Un individuo que usa RP normalmente habla un inglés estándar, aunque ésto al revés no es necesariamente cierto (el lenguaje estándar puede ser pronunciado con un acento regional, como un acento de Yorkshire). Habiendo dejado eso claro, escuchemos al profesor David Ley y a su famosísimo vídeo “3 minutes to a proper British accent with U of A“.

Received Pronounciation (RP)

La Received Pronounciation es el “aristócrata” de los acentos ingleses. A parte de haber sido adoptado como el inglés estándar, el RP es el acento que denota prestigio social en Gran Bretaña.  El hecho de que haya sido percibido como el acento de los poderosos, con dinero e influencia, le ha granjeado no pocas enemistades y ha sido percibido negativamente por algunos británicos como demasiado asociado a privilegios inmerecidos. Por este motivo, desde los años sesenta, las variedades regionales inglesas se han visto más reflejadas en la educación. Este vídeo nos da una idea:

Cockney accent (London)

¡Ay, el cockney accent! Empiezas odiándolo, después escuchándolo como una curiosidad lingüística (¡¿Por qué diablos utilizan este glotal stop tan anatómicamente asfixiante cuando basta con pronunciar la t?!) y sin darte cuenta te vas encariñando y acabas mimetizándolo mientras te fundes con la capital inglesa. Originado en el East-End londinense (distritos de Aldgate, Bethnal Green, Bow, Hackney, Limehouse, Mile End, Old Ford, Poplar, Shoreditch, Stepney, Wapping y Whitechapel) se expandió por toda la ciudad convirtiéndose en una seña de identidad de Londres:

Aly Williams es un genio de la formación online. Su canal en Youtube es: Learn English with Papa Teach Me

Brummie accent (Birmingham)

Joel and Lia Youtube channel

Scouce accent (Liverpool)

English like a native Youtube Channel

Liverpool fc Youtube channel

Geordie accent (Newcastle, South Northumberland, Tyneside)

Geordie es a la vez un apodo regional para una persona de la región de Tyneside de Inglaterra del noreste y el nombre del dialecto inglés norteño hablado por sus habitantes. El término se asocia con Tyneside, South Northumberland, la ciudad de Newcastle-upon-tyne y partes del norte del condado Durham.

Scottish accent (Scotland)

Canal de Youtube Beauty Creep

Un poco de humor para ilustrar el acento escocés…

Acento irlandés

Inglés americano estándar

US map United States map

El General American  (abreviado como GA o GenAm) es una variedad del inglés americano que engloba varios acentos, comúnmente atribuida a una mayoría de estadounidenses y popularmente percibida entre los estadounidenses (a diferencia del inglés británico estándar) como carente de características distintivamente regionales, étnicas o socioeconómicas .

Canal de Youtube Pronunciation Pro

Inglés canadiense

El inglés canadiense contiene elementos del inglés británico y del inglés americano, así como muchos “canadiensismos”: elementos “característicos del uso canadiense”.

Canal de Youtube Like a Native Speaker

Inglés australiano

El inglés australiano comenzó a divergir del inglés británico tras la fundación de la colonia de Nueva Gales del Sur en 1788. Se originó a partir de la mezcla de primeros colonos provenientes de una gran variedad de regiones de las Islas Británicas y se convirtió rápidamente en una variedad distinta del inglés.

El inglés australiano difiere de otras variedades de inglés en vocabulario, acento, pronunciación, registro, gramática y ortografía.

Inglés neozelandés

El idioma inglés fue establecido en Nueva Zelanda por los colonos durante el siglo XIX. El inglés neozelandés es una de las variedades  más nuevas de la lengua inglesa y se ha desarrollado y diferenciado solamente en los últimos 150 años.  Las influencias más evidentes en el inglés neozelandés provienen del inglés australiano, del inglés del sur de Inglaterra, del inglés irlandés, del inglés escocés, del prestigio de la Received Pronounciation (RP) y del maorí. El inglés de Nueva Zelanda es similar a la pronunciación del Inglés australiano, aunque con algunas diferencias clave.

Inglés de Gibraltar

Inglés nigeriano


El Inglés nigeriano, también conocido como Nigerian Standard English, es un dialecto del Inglés hablado en Nigeria. Se basa en el inglés británico, pero en los últimos años, debido a la influencia de los Estados Unidos de América, el inglés nigeriano ha adoptado algunas voces de origen americano. Además, han aparecido algunas palabras nuevas,  surgidas de la necesidad de expresar conceptos específicos de la cultura nigeriana (por ejemplo, senior wife).

El Pidgin nigeriano (un pidgin derivado del inglés) se utiliza sobre todo en conversaciones informales, pero el Nigerian Standard English se utiliza en política, educación, medios de comunicación y otros usos oficiales.

Canal de Youtube de Adefolake

Inglés jamaicano

No debe confundirse con el Patois de Jamaica, también conocido como criollo jamaicano o jamaicano. El inglés jamaicano estándar es una variedad de inglés hablado en Jamaica. Al igual que el inglés canadiense, se parece en parte al inglés británico y en parte al inglés americano, pero tiene muchos aspectos de la entonación irlandesa. En principio, utiliza la misma ortografía que el inglés británico.

Inglés indio

El inglés es uno de los dos idiomas oficiales en India, aunque sólo unos pocos centenares de miles lo tienen como primera lengua. Este divertido vídeo lo explica muy bien.

Canal de Youtube Dyaus Prithivi

Perfect English Pronounciation (British English)

Trainer: Anthony Kelleher

Learn every single English sound from a native British speaker to take your accent and pronunciation to the next level



Perfect English Pronounciation Practice (American English)

Make yourself better understood in English when you learn & practice how to pronounce 12 tricky English consonant sounds



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Financial Translator

Diferencias ortográficas entre el inglés británico y el inglés americano

Diferencias ortográficas entre el inglés británico y el inglés americano · Reglas básicas + Lista completa

¿Yoghurt o Yogurt, Flavour o Flavor, Doughnut o Donut, Foetus o Fetus, Apologise o Apologize, Catalogue o Catalog, cancelled o CanceledSarcastic

Como es sabido, el inglés británico y el inglés americano difieren en la ortografía o escritura ( spelling en inglés) de no pocas palabras. En este artículo veremos las reglas básicas que distinguen el uno del otro y una completa lista de palabras que se escriben de manera diferente en inglés británico y en inglés americano.

Ambas formas son correctas, pero es importante tener en cuenta que hay que ser coherente: si se empieza a escribir en inglés británico, hay que utilizar la ortografía británica, y viceversa.

La palabra “ortografía” tiene dos acepciones:

  1.  Conjunto de normas de escritura de una lengua
  2. Forma correcta de escribir las palabras y de utilizar los signos auxiliares de una lengua respetando sus normas

Nerd Antes de dar la lista entera, veamos algunas reglas básicas:

ortografía inglés

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -OUR en inglés británico, entonces termina en -OR en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-OUR (BrE) -OR (AmE)
Flavour Flavor
Humour Humor
Neighbour Neighbor
Colour Color

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -ISE en inglés británico, entonces termina en -IZE en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-ISE (BrE) -IZE (AmE)
Organise Organize
Recognise Recognize
Apologise Apologize
Analise Analize

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -RE en inglés británico, entonces termina en -ER en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-RE (BrE) -ER (AmE)
Centre Center
Theatre Theater
Fibre Fiber
Litre Liter
Metre Meter

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -OGUE en inglés británico, entonces termina en -OG en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-OGUE (BrE) -OG (AmE)
Analogue Analog
Dialogue Dialog
Catalogue Catalog

Nerd El inglés británico forma el pasado de los verbos terminados en l doblando la l, y el inglés americano sólo utiliza una l. Ejemplos:

-ll- (BrE) -l- (AmE)
Travelled Traveled
Cancelled Canceled

Nerd Hay otras palabras que se escriben de manera diferente por el mayor apego a las formas arcaicas que tiene el inglés británico. Ejemplos:

Yoghurt Yogurt
Doughnut Donut
Anaemia Anemia
Foetus Fetus

Veamos la lista completa de diferencias entre el inglés británico y el inglés americano:

Enlaces interesantes:

                                                 US map United States map

British English / Inglés Británico American English / Inglés Americano
accessorise accessorize
accessorised accessorized
accessorises accessorizes
accessorising accessorizing
acclimatisation acclimatization
acclimatise acclimatize
acclimatised acclimatized
acclimatises acclimatizes
acclimatising acclimatizing
accoutrements accouterments
aeon eon
aeons eons
aerogramme aerogram
aerogrammes aerograms
aeroplane airplane
aeroplanes airplanes
aesthete esthete
aesthetes esthetes
aesthetic esthetic
aesthetically esthetically
aesthetics esthetics
aetiology etiology
ageing aging
aggrandisement aggrandizement
agonise agonize
agonised agonized
agonises agonizes
agonising agonizing
agonisingly agonizingly
almanack almanac
almanacks almanacs
aluminium aluminum
amortisable amortizable
amortisation amortization
amortisations amortizations
amortise amortize
amortised amortized
amortises amortizes
amortising amortizing
amphitheatre amphitheater
amphitheatres amphitheaters
anaemia anemia
anaemic anemic
anaesthesia anesthesia
anaesthetic anesthetic
anaesthetics anesthetics
anaesthetise anesthetize
anaesthetised anesthetized
anaesthetises anesthetizes
anaesthetising anesthetizing
anaesthetist anesthetist
anaesthetists anesthetists
anaesthetize anesthetize
anaesthetized anesthetized
anaesthetizes anesthetizes
anaesthetizing anesthetizing
analogue analog
analogues analogs
analyse analyze
analysed analyzed
analyses analyzes
analysing analyzing
anglicise anglicize
anglicised anglicized
anglicises anglicizes
anglicising anglicizing
annualised annualized
antagonise antagonize
antagonised antagonized
antagonises antagonizes
antagonising antagonizing
apologise apologize
apologised apologized
apologises apologizes
apologising apologizing
appal appall
appals appalls
appetiser appetizer
appetisers appetizers
appetising appetizing
appetisingly appetizingly
arbour arbor
arbours arbors
archaeological archeological
archaeologically archeologically
archaeologist archeologist
archaeologists archeologists
archaeology archeology
ardour ardor
armour armor
armoured armored
armourer armorer
armourers armorers
armouries armories
armoury armory
artefact artifact
artefacts artifacts
authorise authorize
authorised authorized
authorises authorizes
authorising authorizing
axe ax
backpedalled backpedaled
backpedalling backpedaling
bannister banister
bannisters banisters
baptise baptize
baptised baptized
baptises baptizes
baptising baptizing
bastardise bastardize
bastardised bastardized
bastardises bastardizes
bastardising bastardizing
battleaxe battleax
baulk balk
baulked balked
baulking balking
baulks balks
bedevilled bedeviled
bedevilling bedeviling
behaviour behavior
behavioural behavioral
behaviourism behaviorism
behaviourist behaviorist
behaviourists behaviorists
behaviours behaviors
behove behoove
behoved behooved
behoves behooves
bejewelled bejeweled
belabour belabor
belaboured belabored
belabouring belaboring
belabours belabors
bevelled beveled
bevvies bevies
bevvy bevy
biassed biased
biassing biasing
bingeing binging
bougainvillaea bougainvillea
bougainvillaeas bougainvilleas
bowdlerise bowdlerize
bowdlerised bowdlerized
bowdlerises bowdlerizes
bowdlerising bowdlerizing
breathalyse breathalyze
breathalysed breathalyzed
breathalyser breathalyzer
breathalysers breathalyzers
breathalyses breathalyzes
breathalysing breathalyzing
brutalise brutalize
brutalised brutalized
brutalises brutalizes
brutalising brutalizing
buses busses
busing bussing
caesarean cesarean
caesareans cesareans
calibre caliber
calibres calibers
calliper caliper
callipers calipers
callisthenics calisthenics
canalise canalize
canalised canalized
canalises canalizes
canalising canalizing
cancellation cancelation
cancellations cancelations
cancelled canceled
cancelling canceling
candour candor
cannibalise cannibalize
cannibalised cannibalized
cannibalises cannibalizes
cannibalising cannibalizing
canonise canonize
canonised canonized
canonises canonizes
canonising canonizing
capitalise capitalize
capitalised capitalized
capitalises capitalizes
capitalising capitalizing
caramelise caramelize
caramelised caramelized
caramelises caramelizes
caramelising caramelizing
carbonise carbonize
carbonised carbonized
carbonises carbonizes
carbonising carbonizing
carolled caroled
carolling caroling
catalogue catalog
catalogued cataloged
catalogues catalogs
cataloguing cataloging
catalyse catalyze
catalysed catalyzed
catalyses catalyzes
catalysing catalyzing
categorise categorize
categorised categorized
categorises categorizes
categorising categorizing
cauterise cauterize
cauterised cauterized
cauterises cauterizes
cauterising cauterizing
cavilled caviled
cavilling caviling
centigramme centigram
centigrammes centigrams
centilitre centiliter
centilitres centiliters
centimetre centimeter
centimetres centimeters
centralise centralize
centralised centralized
centralises centralizes
centralising centralizing
centre center
centred centered
centrefold centerfold
centrefolds centerfolds
centrepiece centerpiece
centrepieces centerpieces
centres centers
channelled channeled
channelling channeling
characterise characterize
characterised characterized
characterises characterizes
characterising characterizing
cheque check
chequebook checkbook
chequebooks checkbooks
chequered checkered
cheques checks
chilli chili
chimaera chimera
chimaeras chimeras
chiselled chiseled
chiselling chiseling
circularise circularize
circularised circularized
circularises circularizes
circularising circularizing
civilise civilize
civilised civilized
civilises civilizes
civilising civilizing
clamour clamor
clamoured clamored
clamouring clamoring
clamours clamors
clangour clangor
clarinettist clarinetist
clarinettists clarinetists
collectivise collectivize
collectivised collectivized
collectivises collectivizes
collectivising collectivizing
colonisation colonization
colonise colonize
colonised colonized
coloniser colonizer
colonisers colonizers
colonises colonizes
colonising colonizing
colour color
colourant colorant
colourants colorants
coloured colored
coloureds coloreds
colourful colorful
colourfully colorfully
colouring coloring
colourize colorize
colourized colorized
colourizes colorizes
colourizing colorizing
colourless colorless
colours colors
commercialise commercialize
commercialised commercialized
commercialises commercializes
commercialising commercializing
compartmentalise compartmentalize
compartmentalised compartmentalized
compartmentalises compartmentalizes
compartmentalising compartmentalizing
computerise computerize
computerised computerized
computerises computerizes
computerising computerizing
conceptualise conceptualize
conceptualised conceptualized
conceptualises conceptualizes
conceptualising conceptualizing
connexion connection
connexions connections
contextualise contextualize
contextualised contextualized
contextualises contextualizes
contextualising contextualizing
cosier cozier
cosies cozies
cosiest coziest
cosily cozily
cosiness coziness
cosy cozy
councillor councilor
councillors councilors
counselled counseled
counselling counseling
counsellor counselor
counsellors counselors
crenellated crenelated
criminalise criminalize
criminalised criminalized
criminalises criminalizes
criminalising criminalizing
criticise criticize
criticised criticized
criticises criticizes
criticising criticizing
crueller crueler
cruellest cruelest
crystallisation crystallization
crystallise crystallize
crystallised crystallized
crystallises crystallizes
crystallising crystallizing
cudgelled cudgeled
cudgelling cudgeling
customise customize
customised customized
customises customizes
customising customizing
cypher cipher
cyphers ciphers
decentralisation decentralization
decentralise decentralize
decentralised decentralized
decentralises decentralizes
decentralising decentralizing
decriminalisation decriminalization
decriminalise decriminalize
decriminalised decriminalized
decriminalises decriminalizes
decriminalising decriminalizing
defence defense
defenceless defenseless
defences defenses
dehumanisation dehumanization
dehumanise dehumanize
dehumanised dehumanized
dehumanises dehumanizes
dehumanising dehumanizing
demeanour demeanor
demilitarisation demilitarization
demilitarise demilitarize
demilitarised demilitarized
demilitarises demilitarizes
demilitarising demilitarizing
demobilisation demobilization
demobilise demobilize
demobilised demobilized
demobilises demobilizes
demobilising demobilizing
democratisation democratization
democratise democratize
democratised democratized
democratises democratizes
democratising democratizing
demonise demonize
demonised demonized
demonises demonizes
demonising demonizing
demoralisation demoralization
demoralise demoralize
demoralised demoralized
demoralises demoralizes
demoralising demoralizing
denationalisation denationalization
denationalise denationalize
denationalised denationalized
denationalises denationalizes
denationalising denationalizing
deodorise deodorize
deodorised deodorized
deodorises deodorizes
deodorising deodorizing
depersonalise depersonalize
depersonalised depersonalized
depersonalises depersonalizes
depersonalising depersonalizing
deputise deputize
deputised deputized
deputises deputizes
deputising deputizing
desensitisation desensitization
desensitise desensitize
desensitised desensitized
desensitises desensitizes
desensitising desensitizing
destabilisation destabilization
destabilise destabilize
destabilised destabilized
destabilises destabilizes
destabilising destabilizing
dialled dialed
dialling dialing
dialogue dialog
dialogues dialogs
diarrhoea diarrhea
digitise digitize
digitised digitized
digitises digitizes
digitising digitizing
disc disk
discolour discolor
discoloured discolored
discolouring discoloring
discolours discolors
discs disks
disembowelled disemboweled
disembowelling disemboweling
disfavour disfavor
dishevelled disheveled
dishonour dishonor
dishonourable dishonorable
dishonourably dishonorably
dishonoured dishonored
dishonouring dishonoring
dishonours dishonors
disorganisation disorganization
disorganised disorganized
distil distill
distils distills
dramatisation dramatization
dramatisations dramatizations
dramatise dramatize
dramatised dramatized
dramatises dramatizes
dramatising dramatizing
draught draft
draughtboard draftboard
draughtboards draftboards
draughtier draftier
draughtiest draftiest
draughts drafts
draughtsman draftsman
draughtsmanship draftsmanship
draughtsmen draftsmen
draughtswoman draftswoman
draughtswomen draftswomen
draughty drafty
drivelled driveled
drivelling driveling
duelled dueled
duelling dueling
economise economize
economised economized
economises economizes
economising economizing
edoema edema
editorialise editorialize
editorialised editorialized
editorialises editorializes
editorialising editorializing
empathise empathize
empathised empathized
empathises empathizes
empathising empathizing
emphasise emphasize
emphasised emphasized
emphasises emphasizes
emphasising emphasizing
enamelled enameled
enamelling enameling
enamoured enamored
encyclopaedia encyclopedia
encyclopaedias encyclopedias
encyclopaedic encyclopedic
endeavour endeavor
endeavoured endeavored
endeavouring endeavoring
endeavours endeavors
energise energize
energised energized
energises energizes
energising energizing
enrol enroll
enrols enrolls
enthral enthrall
enthrals enthralls
epaulette epaulet
epaulettes epaulets
epicentre epicenter
epicentres epicenters
epilogue epilog
epilogues epilogs
epitomise epitomize
epitomised epitomized
epitomises epitomizes
epitomising epitomizing
equalisation equalization
equalise equalize
equalised equalized
equaliser equalizer
equalisers equalizers
equalises equalizes
equalising equalizing
eulogise eulogize
eulogised eulogized
eulogises eulogizes
eulogising eulogizing
evangelise evangelize
evangelised evangelized
evangelises evangelizes
evangelising evangelizing
exorcise exorcize
exorcised exorcized
exorcises exorcizes
exorcising exorcizing
extemporisation extemporization
extemporise extemporize
extemporised extemporized
extemporises extemporizes
extemporising extemporizing
externalisation externalization
externalisations externalizations
externalise externalize
externalised externalized
externalises externalizes
externalising externalizing
factorise factorize
factorised factorized
factorises factorizes
factorising factorizing
faecal fecal
faeces feces
familiarisation familiarization
familiarise familiarize
familiarised familiarized
familiarises familiarizes
familiarising familiarizing
fantasise fantasize
fantasised fantasized
fantasises fantasizes
fantasising fantasizing
favour favor
favourable favorable
favourably favorably
favoured favored
favouring favoring
favourite favorite
favourites favorites
favouritism favoritism
favours favors
feminise feminize
feminised feminized
feminises feminizes
feminising feminizing
fertilisation fertilization
fertilise fertilize
fertilised fertilized
fertiliser fertilizer
fertilisers fertilizers
fertilises fertilizes
fertilising fertilizing
fervour fervor
fibre fiber
fibreglass fiberglass
fibres fibers
fictionalisation fictionalization
fictionalisations fictionalizations
fictionalise fictionalize
fictionalised fictionalized
fictionalises fictionalizes
fictionalising fictionalizing
fillet filet
filleted fileted
filleting fileting
fillets filets
finalisation finalization
finalise finalize
finalised finalized
finalises finalizes
finalising finalizing
flautist flutist
flautists flutists
flavour flavor
flavoured flavored
flavouring flavoring
flavourings flavorings
flavourless flavorless
flavours flavors
flavoursome flavorsome
flyer / flier flier / flyer
foetal fetal
foetid fetid
foetus fetus
foetuses fetuses
formalisation formalization
formalise formalize
formalised formalized
formalises formalizes
formalising formalizing
fossilisation fossilization
fossilise fossilize
fossilised fossilized
fossilises fossilizes
fossilising fossilizing
fraternisation fraternization
fraternise fraternize
fraternised fraternized
fraternises fraternizes
fraternising fraternizing
fulfil fulfill
fulfilment fulfillment
fulfils fulfills
funnelled funneled
funnelling funneling
galvanise galvanize
galvanised galvanized
galvanises galvanizes
galvanising galvanizing
gambolled gamboled
gambolling gamboling
gaol jail
gaolbird jailbird
gaolbirds jailbirds
gaolbreak jailbreak
gaolbreaks jailbreaks
gaoled jailed
gaoler jailer
gaolers jailers
gaoling jailing
gaols jails
gases gasses
gauge gage
gauged gaged
gauges gages
gauging gaging
generalisation generalization
generalisations generalizations
generalise generalize
generalised generalized
generalises generalizes
generalising generalizing
ghettoise ghettoize
ghettoised ghettoized
ghettoises ghettoizes
ghettoising ghettoizing
gipsies gypsies
glamorise glamorize
glamorised glamorized
glamorises glamorizes
glamorising glamorizing
glamour glamor
globalisation globalization
globalise globalize
globalised globalized
globalises globalizes
globalising globalizing
glueing gluing
goitre goiter
goitres goiters
gonorrhoea gonorrhea
gramme gram
grammes grams
gravelled graveled
grey gray
greyed grayed
greying graying
greyish grayish
greyness grayness
greys grays
grovelled groveled
grovelling groveling
groyne groin
groynes groins
gruelling grueling
gruellingly gruelingly
gryphon griffin
gryphons griffins
gynaecological gynecological
gynaecologist gynecologist
gynaecologists gynecologists
gynaecology gynecology
haematological hematological
haematologist hematologist
haematologists hematologists
haematology hematology
haemoglobin hemoglobin
haemophilia hemophilia
haemophiliac hemophiliac
haemophiliacs hemophiliacs
haemorrhage hemorrhage
haemorrhaged hemorrhaged
haemorrhages hemorrhages
haemorrhaging hemorrhaging
haemorrhoids hemorrhoids
harbour harbor
harboured harbored
harbouring harboring
harbours harbors
harmonisation harmonization
harmonise harmonize
harmonised harmonized
harmonises harmonizes
harmonising harmonizing
homoeopath homeopath
homoeopathic homeopathic
homoeopaths homeopaths
homoeopathy homeopathy
homogenise homogenize
homogenised homogenized
homogenises homogenizes
homogenising homogenizing
honour honor
honourable honorable
honourably honorably
honoured honored
honouring honoring
honours honors
hospitalisation hospitalization
hospitalise hospitalize
hospitalised hospitalized
hospitalises hospitalizes
hospitalising hospitalizing
humanise humanize
humanised humanized
humanises humanizes
humanising humanizing
humour humor
humoured humored
humouring humoring
humourless humorless
humours humors
hybridise hybridize
hybridised hybridized
hybridises hybridizes
hybridising hybridizing
hypnotise hypnotize
hypnotised hypnotized
hypnotises hypnotizes
hypnotising hypnotizing
hypothesise hypothesize
hypothesised hypothesized
hypothesises hypothesizes
hypothesising hypothesizing
idealisation idealization
idealise idealize
idealised idealized
idealises idealizes
idealising idealizing
idolise idolize
idolised idolized
idolises idolizes
idolising idolizing
immobilisation immobilization
immobilise immobilize
immobilised immobilized
immobiliser immobilizer
immobilisers immobilizers
immobilises immobilizes
immobilising immobilizing
immortalise immortalize
immortalised immortalized
immortalises immortalizes
immortalising immortalizing
immunisation immunization
immunise immunize
immunised immunized
immunises immunizes
immunising immunizing
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impanelling impaneling
imperilled imperiled
imperilling imperiling
individualise individualize
individualised individualized
individualises individualizes
individualising individualizing
industrialise industrialize
industrialised industrialized
industrialises industrializes
industrialising industrializing
inflexion inflection
inflexions inflections
initialise initialize
initialised initialized
initialises initializes
initialising initializing
initialled initialed
initialling initialing
instal install
instalment installment
instalments installments
instals installs
instil instill
instils instills
institutionalisation institutionalization
institutionalise institutionalize
institutionalised institutionalized
institutionalises institutionalizes
institutionalising institutionalizing
intellectualise intellectualize
intellectualised intellectualized
intellectualises intellectualizes
intellectualising intellectualizing
internalisation internalization
internalise internalize
internalised internalized
internalises internalizes
internalising internalizing
internationalisation internationalization
internationalise internationalize
internationalised internationalized
internationalises internationalizes
internationalising internationalizing
ionisation ionization
ionise ionize
ionised ionized
ioniser ionizer
ionisers ionizers
ionises ionizes
ionising ionizing
italicise italicize
italicised italicized
italicises italicizes
italicising italicizing
itemise itemize
itemised itemized
itemises itemizes
itemising itemizing
jeopardise jeopardize
jeopardised jeopardized
jeopardises jeopardizes
jeopardising jeopardizing
jewelled jeweled
jeweller jeweler
jewellers jewelers
jewellery jewelry
judgement judgment
kilogramme kilogram
kilogrammes kilograms
kilometre kilometer
kilometres kilometers
labelled labeled
labelling labeling
labour labor
laboured labored
labourer laborer
labourers laborers
labouring laboring
labours labors
lacklustre lackluster
legalisation legalization
legalise legalize
legalised legalized
legalises legalizes
legalising legalizing
legitimise legitimize
legitimised legitimized
legitimises legitimizes
legitimising legitimizing
leukaemia leukemia
levelled leveled
leveller leveler
levellers levelers
levelling leveling
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libelling libeling
libellous libelous
liberalisation liberalization
liberalise liberalize
liberalised liberalized
liberalises liberalizes
liberalising liberalizing
licence license
licenced licensed
licences licenses
licencing licensing
likeable likable
lionisation lionization
lionise lionize
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lionises lionizes
lionising lionizing
liquidise liquidize
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liquidiser liquidizer
liquidisers liquidizers
liquidises liquidizes
liquidising liquidizing
litre liter
litres liters
localise localize
localised localized
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localising localizing
louvre louver
louvred louvered
louvres louvers
lustre luster
magnetise magnetize
magnetised magnetized
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magnetising magnetizing
manoeuvrability maneuverability
manoeuvrable maneuverable
manoeuvre maneuver
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marginalisation marginalization
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marginalising marginalizing
marshalled marshaled
marshalling marshaling
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marvelling marveling
marvellous marvelous
marvellously marvelously
materialisation materialization
materialise materialize
materialised materialized
materialises materializes
materialising materializing
maximisation maximization
maximise maximize
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maximising maximizing
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mechanisation mechanization
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mechanising mechanizing
mediaeval medieval
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memorising memorizing
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metabolise metabolize
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metabolising metabolizing
metre meter
metres meters
micrometre micrometer
micrometres micrometers
militarise militarize
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militarising militarizing
milligramme milligram
milligrammes milligrams
millilitre milliliter
millilitres milliliters
millimetre millimeter
millimetres millimeters
miniaturisation miniaturization
miniaturise miniaturize
miniaturised miniaturized
miniaturises miniaturizes
miniaturising miniaturizing
minibuses minibusses
minimise minimize
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minimising minimizing
misbehaviour misbehavior
misdemeanour misdemeanor
misdemeanours misdemeanors
misspelt misspelled
mitre miter
mitres miters
mobilisation mobilization
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mobilising mobilizing
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modeller modeler
modellers modelers
modelling modeling
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modernising modernizing
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moisturiser moisturizer
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moisturising moisturizing
monologue monolog
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monopolisation monopolization
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moustache mustache
moustached mustached
moustaches mustaches
moustachioed mustachioed
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nationalising nationalizing
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naturalising naturalizing
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neighbourhood neighborhood
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neutralisation neutralization
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odour odor
odourless odorless
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oesophagus esophagus
oesophaguses esophaguses
oestrogen estrogen
offence offense
offences offenses
omelette omelet
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optimise optimize
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optimising optimizing
organisation organization
organisational organizational
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orthopaedic orthopedic
orthopaedics orthopedics
ostracise ostracize
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outmanoeuvre outmaneuver
outmanoeuvred outmaneuvered
outmanoeuvres outmaneuvers
outmanoeuvring outmaneuvering
overemphasise overemphasize
overemphasised overemphasized
overemphasises overemphasizes
overemphasising overemphasizing
oxidisation oxidization
oxidise oxidize
oxidised oxidized
oxidises oxidizes
oxidising oxidizing
paederast pederast
paederasts pederasts
paediatric pediatric
paediatrician pediatrician
paediatricians pediatricians
paediatrics pediatrics
paedophile pedophile
paedophiles pedophiles
paedophilia pedophilia
palaeolithic paleolithic
palaeontologist paleontologist
palaeontologists paleontologists
palaeontology paleontology
panelled paneled
panelling paneling
panellist panelist
panellists panelists
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paralysed paralyzed
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paralysing paralyzing
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parcelling parceling
parlour parlor
parlours parlors
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particularised particularized
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particularising particularizing
passivisation passivization
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passivised passivized
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passivising passivizing
pasteurisation pasteurization
pasteurise pasteurize
pasteurised pasteurized
pasteurises pasteurizes
pasteurising pasteurizing
patronise patronize
patronised patronized
patronises patronizes
patronising patronizing
patronisingly patronizingly
pedalled pedaled
pedalling pedaling
pedestrianisation pedestrianization
pedestrianise pedestrianize
pedestrianised pedestrianized
pedestrianises pedestrianizes
pedestrianising pedestrianizing
penalise penalize
penalised penalized
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penalising penalizing
pencilled penciled
pencilling penciling
personalise personalize
personalised personalized
personalises personalizes
personalising personalizing
pharmacopoeia pharmacopeia
pharmacopoeias pharmacopeias
philosophise philosophize
philosophised philosophized
philosophises philosophizes
philosophising philosophizing
philtre filter
philtres filters
phoney phony
plagiarise plagiarize
plagiarised plagiarized
plagiarises plagiarizes
plagiarising plagiarizing
plough plow
ploughed plowed
ploughing plowing
ploughman plowman
ploughmen plowmen
ploughs plows
ploughshare plowshare
ploughshares plowshares
polarisation polarization
polarise polarize
polarised polarized
polarises polarizes
polarising polarizing
politicisation politicization
politicise politicize
politicised politicized
politicises politicizes
politicising politicizing
popularisation popularization
popularise popularize
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popularising popularizing
pouffe pouf
pouffes poufs
practise practice
practised practiced
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practising practicing
praesidium presidium
praesidiums presidiums
pressurisation pressurization
pressurise pressurize
pressurised pressurized
pressurises pressurizes
pressurising pressurizing
pretence pretense
pretences pretenses
primaeval primeval
prioritisation prioritization
prioritise prioritize
prioritised prioritized
prioritises prioritizes
prioritising prioritizing
privatisation privatization
privatisations privatizations
privatise privatize
privatised privatized
privatises privatizes
privatising privatizing
professionalisation professionalization
professionalise professionalize
professionalised professionalized
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professionalising professionalizing
programme program
programmes programs
prologue prolog
prologues prologs
propagandise propagandize
propagandised propagandized
propagandises propagandizes
propagandising propagandizing
proselytise proselytize
proselytised proselytized
proselytiser proselytizer
proselytisers proselytizers
proselytises proselytizes
proselytising proselytizing
psychoanalyse psychoanalyze
psychoanalysed psychoanalyzed
psychoanalyses psychoanalyzes
psychoanalysing psychoanalyzing
publicise publicize
publicised publicized
publicises publicizes
publicising publicizing
pulverisation pulverization
pulverise pulverize
pulverised pulverized
pulverises pulverizes
pulverising pulverizing
pummelled pummel
pummelling pummeled
pyjama pajama
pyjamas pajamas
pzazz pizzazz
quarrelled quarreled
quarrelling quarreling
radicalise radicalize
radicalised radicalized
radicalises radicalizes
radicalising radicalizing
rancour rancor
randomise randomize
randomised randomized
randomises randomizes
randomising randomizing
rationalisation rationalization
rationalisations rationalizations
rationalise rationalize
rationalised rationalized
rationalises rationalizes
rationalising rationalizing
ravelled raveled
ravelling raveling
realisable realizable
realisation realization
realisations realizations
realise realize
realised realized
realises realizes
realising realizing
recognisable recognizable
recognisably recognizably
recognisance recognizance
recognise recognize
recognised recognized
recognises recognizes
recognising recognizing
reconnoitre reconnoiter
reconnoitred reconnoitered
reconnoitres reconnoiters
reconnoitring reconnoitering
refuelled refueled
refuelling refueling
regularisation regularization
regularise regularize
regularised regularized
regularises regularizes
regularising regularizing
remodelled remodeled
remodelling remodeling
remould remold
remoulded remolded
remoulding remolding
remoulds remolds
reorganisation reorganization
reorganisations reorganizations
reorganise reorganize
reorganised reorganized
reorganises reorganizes
reorganising reorganizing
revelled reveled
reveller reveler
revellers revelers
revelling reveling
revitalise revitalize
revitalised revitalized
revitalises revitalizes
revitalising revitalizing
revolutionise revolutionize
revolutionised revolutionized
revolutionises revolutionizes
revolutionising revolutionizing
rhapsodise rhapsodize
rhapsodised rhapsodized
rhapsodises rhapsodizes
rhapsodising rhapsodizing
rigour rigor
rigours rigors
ritualised ritualized
rivalled rivaled
rivalling rivaling
romanticise romanticize
romanticised romanticized
romanticises romanticizes
romanticising romanticizing
rumour rumor
rumoured rumored
rumours rumors
sabre saber
sabres sabers
saltpetre saltpeter
sanitise sanitize
sanitised sanitized
sanitises sanitizes
sanitising sanitizing
satirise satirize
satirised satirized
satirises satirizes
satirising satirizing
saviour savior
saviours saviors
savour savor
savoured savored
savouries savories
savouring savoring
savours savors
savoury savory
scandalise scandalize
scandalised scandalized
scandalises scandalizes
scandalising scandalizing
sceptic skeptic
sceptical skeptical
sceptically skeptically
scepticism skepticism
sceptics skeptics
sceptre scepter
sceptres scepters
scrutinise scrutinize
scrutinised scrutinized
scrutinises scrutinizes
scrutinising scrutinizing
secularisation secularization
secularise secularize
secularised secularized
secularises secularizes
secularising secularizing
sensationalise sensationalize
sensationalised sensationalized
sensationalises sensationalizes
sensationalising sensationalizing
sensitise sensitize
sensitised sensitized
sensitises sensitizes
sensitising sensitizing
sentimentalise sentimentalize
sentimentalised sentimentalized
sentimentalises sentimentalizes
sentimentalising sentimentalizing
sepulchre sepulcher
sepulchres sepulchers
serialisation serialization
serialisations serializations
serialise serialize
serialised serialized
serialises serializes
serialising serializing
sermonise sermonize
sermonised sermonized
sermonises sermonizes
sermonising sermonizing
sheikh sheik
shovelled shoveled
shovelling shoveling
shrivelled shriveled
shrivelling shriveling
signalise signalize
signalised signalized
signalises signalizes
signalising signalizing
signalled signaled
signalling signaling
smoulder smolder
smouldered smoldered
smouldering smoldering
smoulders smolders
snivelled sniveled
snivelling sniveling
snorkelled snorkeled
snorkelling snorkeling
snowplough snowplow
snowploughs snowplow
socialisation socialization
socialise socialize
socialised socialized
socialises socializes
socialising socializing
sodomise sodomize
sodomised sodomized
sodomises sodomizes
sodomising sodomizing
solemnise solemnize
solemnised solemnized
solemnises solemnizes
solemnising solemnizing
sombre somber
specialisation specialization
specialisations specializations
specialise specialize
specialised specialized
specialises specializes
specialising specializing
spectre specter
spectres specters
spiralled spiraled
spiralling spiraling
splendour splendor
splendours splendors
squirrelled squirreled
squirrelling squirreling
stabilisation stabilization
stabilise stabilize
stabilised stabilized
stabiliser stabilizer
stabilisers stabilizers
stabilises stabilizes
stabilising stabilizing
standardisation standardization
standardise standardize
standardised standardized
standardises standardizes
standardising standardizing
stencilled stenciled
stencilling stenciling
sterilisation sterilization
sterilisations sterilizations
sterilise sterilize
sterilised sterilized
steriliser sterilizer
sterilisers sterilizers
sterilises sterilizes
sterilising sterilizing
stigmatisation stigmatization
stigmatise stigmatize
stigmatised stigmatized
stigmatises stigmatizes
stigmatising stigmatizing
storey story
storeys stories
subsidisation subsidization
subsidise subsidize
subsidised subsidized
subsidiser subsidizer
subsidisers subsidizers
subsidises subsidizes
subsidising subsidizing
succour succor
succoured succored
succouring succoring
succours succors
sulphate sulfate
sulphates sulfates
sulphide sulfide
sulphides sulfides
sulphur sulfur
sulphurous sulfurous
summarise summarize
summarised summarized
summarises summarizes
summarising summarizing
swivelled swiveled
swivelling swiveling
symbolise symbolize
symbolised symbolized
symbolises symbolizes
symbolising symbolizing
sympathise sympathize
sympathised sympathized
sympathiser sympathizer
sympathisers sympathizers
sympathises sympathizes
sympathising sympathizing
synchronisation synchronization
synchronise synchronize
synchronised synchronized
synchronises synchronizes
synchronising synchronizing
synthesise synthesize
synthesised synthesized
synthesiser synthesizer
synthesisers synthesizers
synthesises synthesizes
synthesising synthesizing
syphon siphon
syphoned siphoned
syphoning siphoning
syphons siphons
systematisation systematization
systematise systematize
systematised systematized
systematises systematizes
systematising systematizing
tantalise tantalize
tantalised tantalized
tantalises tantalizes
tantalising tantalizing
tantalisingly tantalizingly
tasselled tasseled
technicolour technicolor
temporise temporize
temporised temporized
temporises temporizes
temporising temporizing
tenderise tenderize
tenderised tenderized
tenderises tenderizes
tenderising tenderizing
terrorise terrorize
terrorised terrorized
terrorises terrorizes
terrorising terrorizing
theatre theater
theatregoer theatergoer
theatregoers theatergoers
theatres theaters
theorise theorize
theorised theorized
theorises theorizes
theorising theorizing
tonne ton
tonnes tons
towelled toweled
towelling toweling
toxaemia toxemia
tranquillise tranquilize
tranquillised tranquilized
tranquilliser tranquilizer
tranquillisers tranquilizers
tranquillises tranquilizes
tranquillising tranquilizing
tranquillity tranquility
tranquillize tranquilize
tranquillized tranquilized
tranquillizer tranquilizer
tranquillizers tranquilizers
tranquillizes tranquilizes
tranquillizing tranquilizing
tranquilly tranquility
transistorised transistorized
traumatise traumatize
traumatised traumatized
traumatises traumatizes
traumatising traumatizing
travelled traveled
traveller traveler
travellers travelers
travelling traveling
travelogue travelog
travelogues travelogs
trialled trialed
trialling trialing
tricolour tricolor
tricolours tricolors
trivialise trivialize
trivialised trivialized
trivialises trivializes
trivialising trivializing
tumour tumor
tumours tumors
tunnelled tunneled
tunnelling tunneling
tyrannise tyrannize
tyrannised tyrannized
tyrannises tyrannizes
tyrannising tyrannizing
tyre tire
tyres tires
unauthorised unauthorized
uncivilised uncivilized
underutilised underutilized
unequalled unequaled
unfavourable unfavorable
unfavourably unfavorably
unionisation unionization
unionise unionize
unionised unionized
unionises unionizes
unionising unionizing
unorganised unorganized
unravelled unraveled
unravelling unraveling
unrecognisable unrecognizable
unrecognised unrecognized
unrivalled unrivaled
unsavoury unsavory
untrammelled untrammeled
urbanisation urbanization
urbanise urbanize
urbanised urbanized
urbanises urbanizes
urbanising urbanizing
utilisable utilizable
utilisation utilization
utilise utilize
utilised utilized
utilises utilizes
utilising utilizing
valour valor
vandalise vandalize
vandalised vandalized
vandalises vandalizes
vandalising vandalizing
vaporisation vaporization
vaporise vaporize
vaporised vaporized
vaporises vaporizes
vaporising vaporizing
vapour vapor
vapours vapors
verbalise verbalize
verbalised verbalized
verbalises verbalizes
verbalising verbalizing
victimisation victimization
victimise victimize
victimised victimized
victimises victimizes
victimising victimizing
videodisc videodisk
videodiscs videodisks
vigour vigor
visualisation visualization
visualisations visualizations
visualise visualize
visualised visualized
visualises visualizes
visualising visualizing
vocalisation vocalization
vocalisations vocalizations
vocalise vocalize
vocalised vocalized
vocalises vocalizes
vocalising vocalizing
vulcanised vulcanized
vulgarisation vulgarization
vulgarise vulgarize
vulgarised vulgarized
vulgarises vulgarizes
vulgarising vulgarizing
waggon wagon
waggons wagons
watercolour watercolor
watercolours watercolors
weaselled weaseled
weaselling weaseling
westernisation westernization
westernise westernize
westernised westernized
westernises westernizes
westernising westernizing
womanise womanize
womanised womanized
womaniser womanizer
womanisers womanizers
womanises womanizes
womanising womanizing
woollen woolen
woollens woolens
woollies woolies
woolly wooly
worshipped worshiped
worshipping worshiping
worshipper worshiper
yodelled yodeled
yodelling yodeling
yoghourt yogurt
yoghourts yogurts
yoghurt yogurt
yoghurts yogurts

Difference between “Merry Christmas” and “Happy Christmas”

Merry Christmas Vs Happy Christmas

The word “Merry” stems from the old English myrge, which means “pleasing, agreeable, pleasant or sweet”, and Christmas stems from the late Old English Cristes mæsse, that means “Mass of Christ.”


The greeting “Merry Christmas” dates back to  1565, when the author of the Hereford Municipal Manuscript wrote “And thus I comytt you to God, who send you a mery Christmas & many.”  It was solidified as a capitalized greeting by Charles Dickens in his great work A Christmas Carol.

charles-dickens-christmas          queen-elizabeth-happy-christmas

Charles Dickens and Queen Elizabeth

However, Queen Elizabeth didn’t like how “merry” sounds. That’s the reason why she preferred “happy” to “merry” , and she used it in her broadcasts to her subjects, so the term gained popularity over the following decades and it is still the most common form in Great Britain and Ireland.

Odd as it may seem, the fact is that today, in England and much of its  Commonwealth, the common greeting is “Happy Christmas”  whereas “Merry Christmas”, a more archaic expression,  is what people say in America.

So Merry Christmas or Happy Christmas to all my fellow readers!
Merry Christmas in Spanish
¡Feliz Navidad!
Merry Christmas in Catalan
Bon Nadal!
Merry Christmas in Basque
Eguberry on!
Merry Christmas in Galician
Bo Nadal
Merry Christmas in French:
Joyeux Noël

Merry Christmas in German:
Frohe Weihnachten

Merry Christmas in Italian:
Buon Natale

Merry Christmas in Portuguese:
Feliz Natal

Merry Christmas in Japanese:

bitcoin for free

Merry Christmas in Russian:
С Рождеством

Merry Christmas in Dutch:
Vrolijk kerstfeest

Merry Christmas in Swedish:
God jul

Merry Christmas in Czech:
Veselé vánoce

Merry Christmas in Turkish:
Mutlu Noeller
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Difference between Merry Xmas and Happy Xmas

Word of the year 2016: Post-truth

Last year Oxford Dictionaries surprised us all by choosing an smiley (tears of joy ? ) as word of the year 2015.

Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016

And this year, the prestigious Oxford Dictionaries decided that the word of the year is post-truth, an adjective ‘relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief’.

Oxford dictionaries definition of Post-truth

The contemporary origin of the term is attributed to blogger David Roberts who used it in 2010 in a column for Grist.

The Oxford Dictionaries Words of the Year —you can see a list of the last WOOTYs below— are selected by editorial staff from each of the Oxford dictionaries. The jury or selection team is made up of lexicographers and consultants to the dictionary team, and editorial, marketing, and publicity staff.

Francis Fukuyama on Post-truth Society

A distinctive feature of post-truth politics is that some politicians continue to repeat their talking points, even if these are found to be untrue by the media or independent political analysts.

Post-truth in Spanish

Post-truth en español

Post-truth in Spanish is Posverdad *

La palabra del año 2016 es Posverdad*

* According to Fundéu Posverdad, without t nor hyphen is better than the form  post-verdad.

* Según Fundéu Posverdad, sin t y sin guión es preferible a la forma post-verdad

Post-truth in French

Mot de l’annee 2016 Post-truth en Français

Post-truth in French is Post-verité *

Le mot de l’année 2016 selon Oxford Dictionaries est… post-vérité

*Post-vérité” looks more popular to French journalists (used in Le Monde, Libération, Le Nouvel-Obs, …)

Last years…

2015 (Face With Tears of Joy, part of emoji)
2014 Vape
2013 selfie
2012 omnishambles GIF (verb)
2011 squeezed middle
2010 big society refudiate
2009 simples unfriend
2008 credit crunch hypermiling
2007 carbon footprint locavore
2006 bovvered carbon-neutral
2005 sudoku podcast
2004 chav


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Oxford Dictionaries word of the year 2015

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish I

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish II

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish III

Popular English idioms about money I

Popular English idioms about money II


Popular English Sayings about money translated to Spanish II

Sayings, Idioms and Expressions about Money translated to Spanish II

Dichos, Modismos y expresiones sobre el dinero traducidos al español II

An idiom is a sentence or a fixed expression with a figurative or literal meaning. Idioms fall into the category of formulaic language. Many languages have thousands of idioms, and English and Spanish, with around 25,000 idiomatic expressions,  is not an exception.

Here you have the second  list of some of the most popular idioms in English about money and its translation to Spanish . You are welcome to contribute with new idioms, sayings and expressions in the comment box below. I hope you enjoy this!

  • Time is money:  This famous proverb was first coined in a phrase used by Benjamin Franklin in Advice to a Young Tradesman, meaning that one should not waste time that could be used to earn money. Spanish: el tiempo es oro.
  • (to) Live to Hand to mouth:  to have just enough money to live on  without any extra cost. Spanish: tirar de ahorros.
  • (to) be coining it: (also coining money): to be earning a lot of money. Spanish: Estar montado en el dólar
  • Drop a dime: to make a phone call (usually to the police to inform or betray someone) Spanish: Dar el chivatazo.
  • (to) Pinch pennies: to be in a situation in which one is forced to spend as little money as possible. Spanish: contar cada centavo.

  • (to) have money to burn: to spend a lot of money on unnecessary things Spanish: Quemar el dinero. Derrochar.
  • Money for old rope: Money one gets for doing something very easy. Spanish: there is not an exact translation for this expression, but you can use “es pan comido” meaning that something is very easy (Este trabajo es pan comido).
  • (to) be minting it (also minting money): To earn a lot of money quickly. Spanish: saltar la banca
  • (to) be loaded with money: to have a lot of money, to be rich. Spanish: estar cargado de dinero.
  • (to) make a killing: to make a lot of money.  Spanish: ganar mucha pasta / plata.
  • (to) make ends meet: to make enough money to buy or pay what you need to live. Spanish: Llegar a fin de mes.

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Popular English idioms about money I

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish I

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish II

Most important English sayings translated to Spanish III