Category Archives: English language

Variants, dialects and accents of English

Variants, dialects and accents of the English language

English is nowadays the global lingua franca and the third most-spoken native language in the world (the top 10¬† languages in the world by number of native speakers are: 1. Mandarin Chinese 2. Spanish 3. English 4. Hindi 5. Arabic 6.French 7. Portuguese 8. Bengali 9. Russian and 10. Indonesian). As Bill Bryson puts it in his memorable book The mother tongue, it is a an irony that “a language that was treated for centuries as the inadequate and second-rate tongue of peasants, should one day become the most important and successful language in the world”

As you may know, English is not a uniform language, by a long shot.¬† From cockney to received pronunciation,¬† from Jamaican English to¬† Canadian English and, of course, from the so-called “British English” to “American English”, there are countless examples of local variants, dialects and accents.

But first of all we must make clear what a variant, a dialect and an accent are:

  • A variant is a¬†specific form of a language used in a¬†culture, for example English is a language, and English as used in the USA is a language variant.
  • A dialect is¬†a form of a language spoken in a particular part of a country, containing some different words and grammar.
  • An accent is¬†the way in which people living in or from a particular region or social group pronounce words.

I’ve thought that the best way, or, if you like, the most¬† straightforward way of understanding such differences and variations is by watching the following videos offered by some awesome native speakers:

acentos en inglés


British English


Standard British English 

Standard British English (often associated with British English and the Received Pronunciation) refers to the dialect of English language that is used as the national norm in a British country, especially as the language for public and formal usage. grammar and vocabulary. Abbreviation: BrE, UK

3 minutes to a proper British accent with U of A“.

Received Pronunciation (RP)

Other names: RP,¬† BBC Pronunciation, the Queen’s English.

Received Pronunciation is an accent, not a dialect, since all RP speakers¬† are supposed to speak standard English.¬† According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, RP is the “standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England”. However,h it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales, since it is identified¬† not so much with a particular region as with a particular social group (mostly upper and upper middle class).

Cockney (London)

Area: London ( East End are Bethnal Green, Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Stepney, Wapping, Limehouse, Poplar, Clerkenwell, Aldgate, Shoreditch, Millwall, Cubitt Town, Hackney, Hoxton, Bow and Mile End.)

Aly Williams.  Youtube Channel: Learn English with Papa Teach Me

Brummie (Birmingham)

Region: Birmingham, England.
Number of speakers: 3.7 million

Joel and Lia Youtube channel

Picky Blinders’ Cillian Murphy and Helen McCrory on brummie accent¬† (minute 03: 50)

…Even Picky Blinder’s creator, Steven Knight,¬† admitted that Birmingham’s accent is “very difficult to get right”.

Scouse (Liverpool)

Region: Merseyside, England.

English like a native Youtube Channel

Liverpool fc Youtube channel


Region: Newcastle, South Northumberland, Tyneside

Graham Oakes’ Youtube channel

Yorkshire accent

Region: Yorkshire, England
Alternative names: Broad Yorkshire, Tyke, Yorkie, or Yorkshire English

Go to Harrison Fletcher’s Youtube Channel

Scottish English

Region: Scotland
Alternative names: Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE).

Youtube Channel: Beauty Creep

Irish English

Alternative names: Hiberno-English
Region: Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Number of speakers: 4.3 million

American English (Standard)

Region: United States of America
Number of speakers: 225 million
Abbreviations: AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US
Alternative names: United States English or U.S. English
Varieties: Eastern New England, New York City, South, North, Midland, West

US map United States map


Youtube Channel:  Pronunciation Pro

American English accents

Fun tour of American accents by Amy Walker, actress, singer and accent chameleon:

Youtube channel: Amy Walker

New England (Connecticut) Accent

Youtube channel: Electric Ryan

New videos coming soon.

Canadian English

Region: Canada
Abbreviations: CanE, CE, en-CA
Native speakers: 19,4 million

 Youtube Channel: Like a Native Speaker

Australian English (Aussie English)

Region: Australia
Native speakers: 16,5 million
Abbreviation: AuE; en-AU)

Youtube channel: Tabloid Junk

New Zealand English

Region: New Zealand
Abbreviation: (NZE)
Number of speakers: 3.8 million

Amy Walker’s Youtube channel

Gibraltarian English

Region: Gibraltar, Iberian Peninsula, Europe.
Abbreviation: GibE

Nigerian English

Region:Nigeria, Africa
Number of speakers: approximately 150 million


Youtube channel:  Adefolake

Jamaican English

Region: Jamaica, Caribbean Sea, America
Number of speakers: 2,890,000

Indian English

Region: India, Asia
Abbreviations: IndE, IE
Number of speakers: around 10% of its population (125 million people) speak English, second only to the USA and expected to quadruple in the next decade! English is also the co-official language of the Indian government.

So… who knows? Maybe we’ll all end up speaking the Indian English variant!
By the way, here is one of the funniest videos about English variants I have ever seen, so enjoy it!

 Youtube Channel: Dyaus Prithivi

One thing is for sure: they have a great sense of humor ūüôā


So, as you can see, English language differs greatly from one variant or dialect to another. Robert Burchfield,¬†a New Zealander lexicographer, scholar, and writer, even asserted that American English and British English were drifting away so rapidly that within two centuries both nations won’t be able to understand each other. Whether it is true or not, it remains to be seen. It is my belief that¬† platforms such as Netflix or HBO, will play an important role regarding this issue.

Perfect English Pronunciation (British English)

Trainer: Anthony Kelleher

Learn every single English sound from a native British speaker to take your accent and pronunciation to the next level



Perfect English Pronunciation Practice (American English)

Make yourself better understood in English when you learn & practice how to pronounce 12 tricky English consonant sounds



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Comprehensive List of Texting and Chat Abbreviations

Texting and Chat Messages

Whatsapp, WeChat, Telegram, Facebook, Twitter… Messaging Apps are changing the way we write and communicate with one another. In the 90s and early 2000s, when people texted SMSs (Short Message Service) and were charged for each one they sent, abbreviations and acronyms were a way to save money. With¬† primitive chats and SMS we saw the firsts emoticons smile emoticon, which not only have survived the Apps revolution, but play an important role in our day-to-day communications since, as the saying goes, “an image is worth a thousand words”.

Today, such abbreviations¬† have become a way of saving time and space, rather than money. More often than not, it is difficult to keep track of the overwhelming amount of new expressions, acronyms and even neologisms new generations ‚ÄĒsuch as millennials‚ÄĒ are constantly coming up with.

To help ease the haze that this flood of new terms may cause, here is a list of the most common ones I’ve been able to collect so far. Hope that helps!

Complete List of Messaging Abbreviations and acronyms

1NAM One In A Million
2MORO Tomorrow
2nte Tonight
2N8 Tonight
404 No Clue
5N Fine
A3 Anywhere, anytime, any place
AAB Average At Best
ADL All Day Long
AEAP As Early as Possible
AKA Also Known As
ALAP As Late as Possible
ANY1 Anyone
ASAP As Soon as Possible
ASL Age / Sex / Location?
ATM At the moment
B3 Blah, Blah, Blah
B4 Before
B4YKI Before You Know it
BA3 Battery
BB Bye Bye
BBS Be Back Soon
Bc or B/C Because
BD Big Deal
BF Boyfriend or Best Friend
BFN Bye For Now
BG Big Green
BFF Best Friends, Forever
BM&Y Between Me and You
BOT Back On Topic
BRB Be right Back
BRT Be right There
BTAM Be that as it May
BTW By The Way
B/W Between
C-P Sleepy
CTN Cannot talk now
CTS Changing The Subject
CUA See You Again
CU See You
CUL See You Later
Cuz/Coz/Cause Because
CUS See You Soon
CWOT Complete Waste of Time
CYA See You Again
CYL Call You Later
CYT See You Tomorrow
DIY Do It Yourself
Dunno Don’t Know
E123 Easy as 1, 2, 3
EM Email
EM? Excuse Me?
EOD End of Day
F2F Face to Face
FB Facebook
FC Fingers Crossed
FOAF Friend of a Friend
FWD Forward
FWIW For What Is Worth
FYEO For Your Eyes Only
G2B Going To Bed
GBTW Get Back To Work
GF Girlfriend
GFY Good For You
GM Good Morning
GTG Got To Go
GTH Go To Hell
GN Good Night
GR8 Great
HAK Hugs and Kisses
HBY How about you
HF Have Fun
HU Hugh You
IC I See
ICYDK In Case You Didn’t Know
IDGI I don’t Get It
ILY I Love You
IYDMMA If You Don’t Mind Me Asking
IS I’m Sorry
IACL I Am Currently Laughing
IDC I Don’t Care
IDK I Don’t Know
ILU / ILY I Love You
IMU I Miss You
IMO In My Opinion
IRL In Real Life
J/K Just Kidding
JC Just Checking
JIC Just In Case
JJ Just Joking
JK Just Kidding
JOOC Just Out Of Curiosity
JTLYK Just to Let You Know
KFY Kiss for You
KMP Keep Me Posted
KMN Kill Me Now
KPC Keeping Parents Clueless
KU Kiss You
KYP Keep You Posted
LAM Leave A Message
L8 Late
L8R Later
LMHO Laughing My Head Off
LMK Let Me Know
LMAO Laughing my a*s off
LNG Long
LOL Laughing out loud
LTNS Long Time No See
LU Love You
M8 Mate
MoF Male or Female
MSG Message
MTFBWY May the Force be with You
MU Miss You
MYOB Mind Your Own Business
N-A-Y-L In a While
NAZ Name, Address, ZIP
NC No Comment
NE1 Anyone
NIMBY Not in my Backyard
NOYB None of Your Business
NM Never Mind / Nothing Much
NP No Problem
NSFW Not Safe for Work
NTIM Not that it Matters
NVM Never Mind
OATUS On a totally Unrelated Subject
OIC Oh, I See
OMG Oh My God
OMW On My Way
ORLY Oh, Really?
OTL Out to Lunch
OTP On the Phone
P911 Parent Alert
PAL Parents are Listening
PAW Parents are Watching
Pic P√ģcture
PIR Parent in Room
PLZ Please
PMSL Pi*song myself laughing
POS Parent over Shoulder
PPL People
PROP(S) Proper Respect / Proper Recognition
Q4Y Question For You
QT Cutie
R8 Right
RN Right Now
RU Are You
Sec Second
SEP Someone else’s Problem
SITD Still in the Dark
SLAP Sounds like a Plan
SMIM Send Me an Instant Message
SO Significant Other
SS So Sorry
SRY Sorry
SUP What’s Up
SWW Sorry Wrong Window
TC Take Care
TG That’s Great
Tho Though
THX Thanks
TMI Too Much Information
TTYL  Talk To You Later
TTYS Talk To You Soon
TU Thank You
TXT Text
TYT Take Your Time
UR Your / You are
W8 Wait
WB Welcome Back
WTF What The Fuck
WTH What The Hell
WYCM Will You Call Me?
WYWH Wish You Were Here
XOXOXOX Hugs, Kisses, …
YT Youtube
YW You’re Welcome
W8AM Wait A Minute
WAPP Whatsapp
WD Well Done
WP Word Perfect


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New Year’s Eve Quotes

I thank you all for following Financial Translator throughout the year with some New year’s Eve quotes. May you be blessed enough to spend this new year with your family, friends and loved ones. Be grateful and you will have only good things come your way. Happy New Year 2020!


Be at war with your vices, at peace with your neighbors, and let every new year find you a better man. Benjamin Franklin.


If you asked me for my New Year Resolution, it would be to find out who I am. Cyril Cusack.


It’s officially New Year’s Eve, you only have a couple of hours to do all the things you will resolve not to do in the New Year. (joke)


My New Year’s resolution is to stick to a good workout plan that will keep me healthy and happy. James Lafferty.


Your success and happiness lies in you. Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties. Helen Keller.


And now we welcome the new year. Full of things that have never been. Rainer Maria Rilke.


May all your troubles last as long as your New Year resolutions. (joke)


The new year stands before us, like a chapter in a book, waiting to be written. We can help write that story by setting goals. Melody Beattie.


I hope that in this year to come, you make mistakes. Because if you are making mistakes, then you are making new things, trying new things, learning, living, pushing yourself, changing yourself, changing your world. You’re doing things you’ve never done before, and more importantly, you’re doing something. Neil Gaiman.


Hope smiles from the threshold of the year to come, whispering, ‘It will be happier.’ Alfred Lord Tennyson.


Write it on your heart that every day is the best day in the year. Ralph Waldo Emerson.


“Tonight’s December thirty-first,
Something is about to burst.
The clock is crouching, dark and small,
Like a time bomb in the hall.
Hark, it’s midnight, children dear.
Duck! Here comes another year!‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Ogden Nash.


I hate when people ask me what I’ll be doing in one year, come on guys I don’t have 2020 vision. (joke)


“Ring out the old, ring in the new,
Ring, happy bells, across the snow:
The year is going, let him go;
Ring out the false, ring in the true.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Alfred Tennyson, In Memoriam.


‚ÄúThe New Year is a painting not yet painted; a path not yet stepped on; a wing not yet taken off! Things haven‚Äôt happened as yet! Before the clock strikes twelve, remember that you are blessed with the ability to reshape your life!‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Mehmet Murat ildan


‚ÄúThere is nothing magical about the flip of the calendar, but it represents a clean break, a new hope, and a blank canvas.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Jason Soroski


‚ÄúNew year, new blessing, new grace and new opportunities, never allow the failures of the past to rub you of the blessings in the new year.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Bamigboye Olurotimi


‚ÄúLet all the failures of your past year be your best guide in the New Year!‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Mehmet Murat ildan

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Oxford Dictionaries’ 2017 Word of the Year

‚ÄúYouthquake‚ÄĚ: Oxford Dictionaries’ 2017 Word of the Year

After 2015’s Tears of joy emoji and 2016’s post-truth, ‚ÄúYouthquake‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒ defined as ‚Äúa significant cultural, political or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒ takes the title this year.

Casper Grathwohl, The President of Oxford Dictionarie explains why he’s particularly happy about this year’s choice in a post:

‚ÄúWe chose youthquake based on its evidence and linguistic interest. But most importantly for me, at a time when our language is reflecting our deepening unrest and exhausted nerves, it is a rare political word that sounds a hopeful note. Sometimes you pick a word as the word of the year because you recognise that it has arrived, but other times you pick one that is knocking at the door and you want to help usher in … I think this past year calls for a word we can all rally behind.‚ÄĚ

The word itself is not exactly the latest trend in neologisms; in fact, it is  almost 50 years old and it was already listed in Oxford Dictionaries.  It was first coined in the 1960s by Vogue editor Diana Vreeland to describe how British youth were changing music and fashion around the world.

Other¬†terms such as Antifa ‚ÄĒmilitant opposition to fascism‚ÄĒ,¬†Broflake ‚ÄĒa man who is readily upset or offended by progressive attitudes that conflict with his more conventional or conservative views‚ÄĒor¬†Milkshake Duck ‚ÄĒa person or thing that initially inspires delight on social media but is soon revealed to have a distasteful or repugnant past‚ÄĒ¬†also made it onto¬†Oxfor Dictionarie’s Word of the Year shortlist.


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Proz webinar

Idioms illustrated


They say an image is worth a thousand words. But I think an image backed by an explanation is even more powerful, specially when applied to idioms.

When I have a bad hair day and I need to let off steam, or when I am at a lose end, I fancy working on it rather than watching videos on the sofa like a couch potato.

At the end of this post you will find links to over 300 illustrated idioms, business idioms and puns.

Without further ado, please enjoy the following idioms ūüôā

1. Let off steam

Let off steam (EN) Desahogarse (SP)

What is an idiom?

An idiom¬† is a phrase or an expression with a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom’s figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. There are thousands of idioms, occurring frequently in all languages. It is estimated that there are at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language. From the Latin word idiom, “special property”, and, in turn, from Ancient Greek: ŠľįőīőĮŌČőľőĪ, “special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity”, f. Ancient Greek: ŠľīőīőĻőŅŌā, translit. √≠dios, “one’s own”.

2. A skeleton in the closet

idioms illustrated

3. (to) Dig one’s heels in


(to) dig one’s heels in (EN) Mantenerse en sus trece (SP)

4. (to) go blank


5. Couch potato

6. A bad hair day

un día de perros en inglés

7. Up and running

8. Out and about

9. (to) be at a loose end

quedarse en blanco

10. (to) Blow one’s mind


(to) blow sb’s mind (EN)¬† Impresionar / Dejar flipado a alguien (SP)

11. (to) talk turkey


(to) talk turkey (EN) Hablando en plata (SP)

12. (to) find one’s feet

to find one's feet

(to) find one’s feet (EN) Situarse. Ponerse al d√≠a / corriente (SP)

13. Ignorance is biss


Ignorance is bliss (EN) Bendita ignorancia (SP)

14. Cat got your tongue

Shortened form of Has the cat got your tongue? It means trying to compel or urge someone to speak up when they are being unnecessarily quiet

Business idioms and jargon illustrated

financial jargon

games on words

Business idioms

Business idioms and financial jargon illustrated

business idioms

An idiom is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning whereas¬†Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context¬†‚ÄĒusually a specific trade or profession‚ÄĒ and may not be well understood outside of it. Here you have a list of some of the most common idioms and jargon used in business. I’ve also included some sayings and terms that may come in handy in some business situations.¬†This post will be regularly updated with new idioms and jargon.

A Company man


  1. A company man. Spanish: hombre de empresa. Business idiom. Example: John’s a company man. We can trust him. He’ll keep his mouth shut.

Captain of industry

2. Captain of industry. Spanish: jefe de la industria. Business idiom. Example: Today we are having lunch with a captain of industry.

(to) cut one’s losses

3. (to) cut one’s losses¬†in Spanish: recortar gastos.¬†Business idiom. Example: It’s time for Pear Enterprises to cut their losses and negotiate.

(to) go public

4. (to) go public. Spanish: Salir a bolsa. Financial jargon.

(to) go belly up

business idioms

5. (to) go belly up . Spanish: Irse a pique. Business idiom.

There’s no such thing as a free lunch


6. There’s no such thing as a free lunch. Spanish: No hay duros a cuatro pesetas.¬†¬†Saying. Example: Unfortunately, there’s no such thing as a free lunch.

Green shoots

expresiones en inglés expressions in Spanish

7. Green shoots (the first signs of an improvement in an economy). Spanish: brotes verdes. Business idiom. Example: The tentative green shoots of recovery seem to be withering away.

Chicken feed

money idioms economy idioms modismos sobre economía y dinero

8. Chicken feed (a very small amount of money). Business idiom.

Big fish

business idioms

9. Big fish in Spanish: pez gordo.¬†Business idiom. Example: He’s a big fish in a very small pond.

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10. Shark (e.g. loan shark). Shark in Spanish: tiburón (also in a figurative sense). Financial jargon. M&A is usually a dog-eat-dog shark tank business

800-pound gorilla

business idioms

11. 800-pound gorilla. Business idiom.

(to) foot the bill

economy and finance idioms

12. (to) foot the bill. (to) foot the bill in Spanish: pagar la factura (sometimes called “la dolorosa”).¬†Business idiom. Example: One way or another, citizens always have to¬†foot the bill.

(to) be broke

13. (to) be broke (to have no money). (to) be broke in Spanish: estar sin blanca. Business idiom.

Money doesn’t grow on trees

money idioms

14. Money doesn’t grow on trees / Money don’t grow on trees.¬†¬†Saying.

Native speakers will often use the form “Money don’t grow on trees” in informal situations as it’s faster to prononce “don’t”, due to the fact it has one less syllable. In Spanish “El dinero no cae del cielo” (literally money doesn’t fall from the sky) conveys the same meaning.

(to) be rolling in money

money idioms

15. (to) be rolling in money / (to) be rolling in it. In Spanish, “estar forrado”.¬†Business idiom. Also: (to) be made of money

Money talks

money idioms

16. Money talks (you can do what you want with money). In Spanish one cas say “poderoso caballero es don dinero” (literally, Mr Money is a powerful gentleman) conveying the same meaning.¬†Business idiom.

Money doesn’t give happiness

money idioms

17. Money doesn’t give happiness. In Spanish, “el dinero no da la felicidad”.¬†¬†Saying.

A rising tide lifts all boats

business idioms

18. A rising tide lifts all boats.  Saying.

Time is money

financial idioms

19. Time is money (e.g. In other words, in international trade, time is money). In spanish “el tiempo es oro” (literally time is gold).¬†¬†Saying.

(to) call a loan

finance idioms

20. (to) call a loan. Financial jargon.

Ill-gotten gains

business idioms

21. Ill-gotten gains (e.g. These ill-gotten gains are laundered and go into circulation in the legal economy). Spanish: ganancias ilícitas. Business idiom.

Money laundering

financial jargon

22. Money laundering is the process of transforming the profits of crime and corruption into ostensibly ‘legitimate’ assets. (e.g. ¬†The EU¬†had also introduced measures to monitor and prevent money-laundering). Spanish: blanqueo de dinero. Financial jargon.

Money for jam

economy idioms

23. Money for jam (e.g. Selling cold drinks with a vending machine  is money for jam when it is very hot).· also money for old rope. Spanish: dinero fácil. Business idiom.

(to) be worth its weight in gold

valer su peso en oro en inglés

24. (to) be worth its weight in gold (e.g. His ideas are worth its weight in gold). Spanish: valer su peso en oro.  Saying.

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win win picture

25. It’s a win-win (Beneficial to each of the two parties). Spanish: ventajoso para todos.¬†Business idiom.

(to) skyrocket

financial jargon financial idioms

26. (to) skyrocket. Spanish: dispararse. Financial jargon.

Margin call

financial idioms financial jargon

27. Margin call. Spanish: ajuste de márgenes. Financial jargon.

Liquid assets

finance liquid assets

28. Liquid assets. Spanish: activos líquidos. Financial jargon.

Cash cow

business jargon business idioms

29. Cash cow. Cell phone accessories are a cash cow for¬†our business. Spanish: vaca lechera, gallina de los huevos de oro…¬†Business idiom.

bitcoin for free

Bull market

bull market stock market stock exchange

30. Bull market. Spanish: mercado alcista. Financial jargon.

Bear Market / Bearish market

31. Bear Market:¬†A stock market where a majority of investors are selling (“bears”), causing overall stock prices to drop. Financial jargon.


financial jargon

32. Bear market. Spanish: mercado bajista. Financial jargon.

Venture capital

financial jargon

33. Venture capital. Spanish: Capital riesgo. Business idiom.

Hostile takeover

opa hostil en inglés

34. Hostile takeover. Spanish: compra hostil. (Hostile bid: OPA hostil). Financial jargon.

Ninja loan

financial jargon idioms

35. Ninja loans. Financial jargon.

Real-Estate bubble

housing bubble property bubble

36. Real-estate bubble. Also: housing bubble or property bubble. Spanish: burbuja inmobiliaria. Financial jargon.

Tax haven


37. Tax haven or tax shelter. Spanish: paraíso fiscal. Financial jargon.

A debt paid is a friend kept


friends and debts money

38. [Saying] A debt paid is a friend kept.  Saying.

Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth


39.¬†[Saying] Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth French:¬†Un tiens vaut mieux que deux tu l’auras.¬†¬†Saying.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

40. [Saying] A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.  Saying.

All that glitters is not gold

sayings dichos

41. All that glitters is not gold.  Saying.

A promise is a promise

A promise is a promise

42.  A promise is a promise.  Saying.

Don’t put all your eggs in one basket


no pongas todos los huevos en la misma cesta

43. [Saying] ¬†Don’t put all your eggs in the same basket

A square deal

44. Square deal (A fair agreement). Spanish: trato justo. Business idiom.

Nest egg

business idioms

45. Nest egg. Spanish: fondo de reserva. Business idiom.

Short selling

venta a corto

46. Short selling. Spanish: venta a corto, venta al descubierto. Financial jargon.

Stocks / Shares

tipos de acciones

47. Blue chips           48. Growth stocks           49. Defensive stocks         50. Income stocks           51. Value stocks        Financial jargon.

Junk bond

financial jargon

52. Junk bond:¬†A¬†bond¬†which is considered below “investment grade” due to a significant risk of¬†default¬†by the issuer. The interest rate is higher in order to compensate holders for that risk. Junk bond in Spanish: bono basura.

A penny saved is a penny earned


business idioms

53. A penny saved is a penny earned.  Saying.


Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

54. EBITDA Financial and accounting jargon.

Credit Rating

financial jargon

55. Credit rating. Spanish: calificación crediticia. Financial jargon.

Asset management

financial jargon

56. Asset Management. Spanish: gestión de activos. Financial jargon.



57. Leverage: In finance, leverage  is any technique involving the use of borrowed funds in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after tax income from the asset and asset price appreciation will exceed the borrowing cost. Leveraging enables gains and losses to be multiplied. Spanish: apalancamiento. Financial jargon.

(to) keep one’s head above water

financial idioms

58. (to) keep one’s head above water. Spanish: mantenerse a flote. Business idiom.

On a shoestring

economy idioms

59. On a shoestring > The documentary was made on a shoestring. Spanish: con recursos mínimos, con un bajo presupuesto. Business idiom.

Insider trading

busines idioms

60. Insider trading > The use of confidential information by an Associate for personal business and insider trading is strictly prohibited. Spanish: tráfico de información privilegiada. Financial jargon.

Chinese wall

financial jargon

61. Chinese wall > ¬†A set of rules and procedures – known¬†as¬†a¬†Chinese wall¬†–¬†have been established¬†to prevent inside information¬†from reaching the areas responsible for the management of the ECB’s foreign reserves and own funds portfolio. Chinese wall in Spanish: muralla china. Business and financial jargon.

Fair trade

comercio justo

62. Fair trade. Spanish: comercio justo.

Economy of the common good

économie du bien commun

63. Economy for the common good

Comparative advantage

64. Comparative advantage. Spanish: ventaja comparativa.

Absolute advantage

ecomomics foreign trade

65. Absolute advantage. Spanish: ventaja absoluta.

Monkey business

business idioms

66. Monkey Business. Business idiom.

Banker’s hours

67. Banker’s hours.¬†Business idiom.

Interest rates

financial jargon

68. Fixed and floating interests rates. Spanish: tipos de cambio fijos y variables.

Quantitative easing

flexibilización cuantitativa

69. Quantitative easing in Spanish: expansión cuantitativa

Above board

business idioms

70. Above board  > The negociations were long and at times quite difficult, but completely open and above board. Above board in Spanish: sin trampa ni cartón, trato justo. Business idiom.

Rags to riches

Money idioms

71. Rags to riches. Money idiom.


Golden handshake

business idioms

72. Golden handshake. Business idiom.

Talk shop

talk business

73. (to) talk shop. Business idiom.

Rome was not built in a day


74. Rome wasn’t built in a day. Saying.

Out of the frying pan into the fire

idioms in Spanish

75. Out of the frying pan into the fire. (French: de Charybde en Scylla). Saying.

Market capitalization

financial jargon

76. Market capitalization. Financial jargon.

(to) be sky high

economy idioms

77. (to) be sky-high. Business idiom. Spanish: estar por las nubes. Business idiom



78. Wrapper. Financial Jargon.


It’s good fishing in troubled waters



79. It’s good fishing in troubled waters. Saying.

Hard cash

contante y sonante en inglés

80. Hard cash (meaning coins or notes, but not cheques or  credit cards). Idiom.

Double-edged sword

arma de doble filo en inglés

81. Double-edged sword

Success and failure

two sides of the same coin

82. Success and failure are two sides of a coin called risk, financial translator.

Never invest more than you can afford to lose


risk meme

83. Never invest more than you can afford to lose (business saying)

High risk high reward

finance saying

84. High risk, high reward (business saying)

(to be) born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth


economy idioms

85. (to be) born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth: (to be) born¬†into¬†a¬†wealthy¬†and privileged¬†family. Idiom.

Back-of-the-envelope calculation

business idioms

86. Back-of-the-enveloipe calculation: quick approximate calculation done informally.  Rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as an envelope.

(to) have deep pockets

(to) have deep pockets

87. (to) Have deep pockets: (to) have a lot of money or abundant financial resources.

(to) be ahead of the game

88. (to) stay / be ahead of the way. to know more about the most recent developments in a particular field than the companies one is competing against. Spanish: Llevar la delantera.

Quit while you’re ahead


business idioms

89. Quit while you’re¬† ahead: don’t try to improve sth that is already accomplished, specially if it is rewarding but risky.

Blank cheque

business idioms

90. Blank cheque (When someone is given an unlimitted freedom of action. A grant of complete authority to spend an unlimited amount of money, or to take other actions without restraint.) · Example: Generally, courts have held that the First Amendment does not give people of faith a blank check to ignore the law. Spanish: Cheque en blanco.

(to) be coining it

to be coining money

91. (to) be coining it:  to be earning a lot of money. Also: (to) be coining money or (to) be minting it/minting money.  Spanish: Estar montado en el dólar. Example: She must be coining it in with all those extra shifts.

Ballpark figure/number

business idioms

92. Ballpark number / figure. Spanish: una cifra aproximada. Example: A ballpark figure for the number of staff the company might require would therefore be around 50.

(to) corner the market

business idioms

93. (to) corner the market. Spanish: dominar el mercado.

Grasp all, lose all

94. Grasp all, lose all. Spanish: la avaricia rompe el saco.

(to) Run the numbers

business idioms

95. (to) run the numbers = (to) do the numbers. Spanish: echar cuentas. Example: When we ran the numbers it started looking very attractive.

License to make money

business idioms

96. Licence (UK) License (US)  to print money. Spanish: una máquina de hacer dinero.

For a song

business idioms

97. For a song (very cheap). Spanish: por cuatro perras.

(to) cook the books

business idioms

98. (to) cook the books). Spanish: ama√Īar las cuentas. Example: The accountant cooked the books and made himself a lot more money

Think outside the box

business idioms

99. Think outside the box. Example: To increase sales we must begin thinking outside the box.

Across the board

Business idioms

100. Across the board. Spanish: de modo generalizado. Example: Accountability must be applied fairly and across the board.

Fish or cut bait

business idioms

101. Idiom: Fish or cut bait, Mark. There’s work to be done here.¬†Decide whether you’re going to watch or help. Spanish: No te quedes de brazos cruzados y haz algo.

Learn the ropes

business idioms

102. Idiom: (to) learn the ropes


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¬ŅQu√© es el Globish?

¬ŅQu√© es el Globish?

Definición de Globish

Globish¬†es un t√©rmino formado por las palabras Global e English y se puede definir como una lengua auxiliar internacional. Es una versi√≥n reducida y simplificada del idioma ingl√©s. Se caracteriza por usar s√≥lo 1500 palabras, a partir de las cuales construye las frases. Utiliza un vocabulario b√°sico y una sintaxis simplificada, no recurre a los phrasal verbs, ni a los localismos, modismos, refranes, giros… Su creador no lo define como un idioma, sino m√°s bien como una herramienta para que gente de todo el mundo sin un alto nivel de ingl√©s pueda comunicarse r√°pidamente.

Origen del término Globish

El neologismo Globish ‚ÄĒpor cierto, un nombre registrado en el registro de la propiedad intelectual como sistema de comunicaci√≥n‚ÄĒ ¬†fue propuesto por Jean-Paul Nerri√®re, ex presidente de marketing de IBM. Nerri√®re afirma que no es un idioma, sino la base com√ļn que los hablantes no ingleses adoptan en los negocios internacionales.

De todos modos, parece que la primera referencia al Globish la encontramos en 1997 en la publicación Christian Science Monitor, aunque se refería a algo distinto: al conjunto de dialectos del inglés hablados fuera de las zonas angloparlantes tradicionales.

En 1998, y en otro sentido, Madhukar Gogate, vuelve a utilizar el término Globish para proponer su inglés global simplificado pensado para mejorar la ortografía.

Es importante se√Īalar en este art√≠culo que ya antes, en 1930, Charles k. Ogden¬†hab√≠a hecho una tentativa de simplificar el ingl√©s con su libro ¬†A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar¬†(1930). Llam√≥¬†al invento Basic English.

Nerrière, que acudía a muchos congresos y simposios internacionales en calidad de director de marketing de IBM, observaba como un argentino y un japonés se entendían mucho mejor que el mismo japonés y un estadounidense.

Por este motivo, Nerrière presenta el globish como un lenguaje natural, que de hecho ya se da en el mundo real, y que, a diferencia de un lenguaje artificialmente construido (como podría ser el esperanto), fundamenta su marco normativo en la observación.

Así, en 2004 Jean-Paul se puso manos a la obra y empezó a codificar su nuevo inglés global.

Finalmente, en 2009 public√≥, junto con David Hon, el libro ‚ÄúGlobish the World Over‚ÄĚ, titulado en espa√Īol ‚ÄúNo hable ingl√©s, hable Globish‚ÄĚ y en franc√©s ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt speak English, parlez Globish‚ÄĚ. Hasta la fecha, el libro ha sido traducido a 12 idiomas y fue un super ventas en Jap√≥n. Hoy incluso existe una fundaci√≥n en Australia llamada Globish Foundation.

  Parlez Globish ! : Don't speak English... (ED ORGANISATION) de [Nerrière, Jean-Paul]

Clica en la imagen para más información

Nerrière observó patrones (que los hablantes no nativos de inglés utilizaban para comunicarse entre ellos en conferencias internacionales) a partir de los cuales desarrolló un marco normativo para facilitar y acelerar el proceso en el que dos hablantes no nativos pueden comunicarse entre ellos.

Críticas al Globish

Las críticas que ha recibido el globish apuntan a que no existen pruebas empíricas de que el globish se base realmente en observaciones, y ello pone en entredicho la afirmación de Nerrière de que es un lenguaje natural.

También se le ha criticado que en la promulgación de un sistema que debería ser global, subyacen no pocos intereses comerciales, ya que su creador registró el nombre, cosa que no hizo L.L. Zamenhof con el esperanto.

Finalmente, ha recibido críticas de que esconde un cierto imperialismo, ya que no deja de ser un subconjunto de un solo idioma: el inglés (a diferencia del Esperanto, que integraba diferentes idiomas).

El globish, hablado por gente que no tiene un alto nivel de ingl√©s, puede llevar a errores. Es conocido el caso del finland√©s que declar√≥ ‚ÄúI enjoy being mentally challenged‚ÄĚ. Un periodista que probablemente no ten√≠a un alto nivel de competencia en lengua inglesa, lo public√≥ en la portada de un peri√≥dico. Alguien no tard√≥ en caer en la cuenta de que ‚ÄúI enjoy being mentally challenged‚ÄĚ significa ‚ÄúDisfruto de ser discapacitado mental‚ÄĚ cuando √©l quer√≠a decir ‚ÄúMe encanta que me reten mentalmente‚ÄĚ.

En el otro extremo, podría darse el caso de que un hablante nativo de inglés llegara a ser incompetente en globish y que no se pudiera hacer entender (por su uso de localismos, phrasal verbs, modismos, giros…)

Ventajas del Globish

Su sistema ha caído en gracia incluso en el mundo anglosajón. Su creador es bueno promocionando ideas abstractas, por lo que podría conseguir más difusión que el Basic English de Ogden o incluso que el Esperanto de Zamenhof.

Para alguien que parta de cero, un principiante (ya sea beginner o false beginner) puede resultar muy √ļtil para adquirir unas habilidades b√°sicas que le permitan comunicarse r√°pidamente con todo el mundo.


A modo de conclusión diría que siempre es preferible adquirir un buen nivel de inglés, ser competente  en la actual lingua franca; y a partir de ahí lanzarse a otros idiomas, aunque entiendo que eso lleva tiempo y no todo el mundo es un language freak.

As√≠ pues, como puente o ‚Äúcampamento base‚ÄĚ que permita comunicarse rudimentariamente con gente de todo el mundo hasta que no se consiga un nivel de competencia adecuado, podr√≠a argumentarse que resulta pr√°ctico y muy r√°pido de aprender. Al fin y al cabo, 1500 palabras se pueden adquirir¬†en uno o dos meses.

Quizás si se ve como un inglés para principiantes, todo cobra más sentido.

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Diferentes acentos del idioma inglés

Diferentes acentos del inglés con explicaciones y vídeos

acento brit√°nico, escoc√©s, irland√©s, gal√©s, acento americano, acento australiano, acento jamaicano, acento nigeriano, acento neozeland√©s, acento indio, gibraltare√Īo…

El inglés es la primera lengua en el Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Irlanda y Canadá (con el permiso del francés en Quebec) y es lengua oficial en más de 40 países.

Como ocurre con el espa√Īol, en ingl√©s existen muchos acentos diferentes. S√≥lo en las Islas Brit√°nicas podemos encontrar varios acentos, que obedecen a razones geogr√°ficas, hist√≥ricas y socio-econ√≥micas.

> No es mi intenci√≥n aqu√≠ hacer un tratado de ling√ľ√≠stica, ni entrar a valorar si se trata de variantes dialectales o registros, ya que esto forma parte de un debate filol√≥gico m√°s¬†amplio que a√ļn no est√° cerrado. Por eso aqu√≠ hablamos s√≥lo de acentos, que seg√ļn la RAE es el “conjunto de las particularidades fon√©ticas, r√≠tmicas y mel√≥dicas que caracterizan el habla de un pa√≠s, regi√≥n o ciudad”.¬†En ling√ľ√≠stica, el t√©rmino¬†dialecto¬†hace referencia a una de las posibles variedades de una lengua;¬†habitualmente se usa el t√©rmino dialecto para referirse a una variante geogr√°fica de una lengua asociada con una determinada zona.

Como es bien sabido, el Imperio Brit√°nico dej√≥ una impronta ling√ľ√≠stica en muchos de sus territorios. La combinaci√≥n de varios factores (como la procedencia de los colonos¬†o la influencia de los pueblos ind√≠genas) dio lugar a diferentes¬†acentos del ingl√©s, cada uno con sus peculiaridades ¬†fon√©ticas, ¬†ortogr√°ficas, sem√°nticas y de vocabulario.

acentos en inglés

Mi intención es ir actualizando esta publicación con más acentos y vídeos. De momento podréis escuchar inglés británico estándar, inglés americano estándar, inglés australiano, inglés neozelandés, inglés nigeriano, inglés jamaicano e inglés indio, a parte, también veréis -y podréis escuchar- acentos como el escocés, el irlandés o el galés. Espero que te resulte interesante.

Inglés británico

Antes que nada, decir que hay varios tipos de acentos en ingl√©s brit√°nico. Yo mismo he vivido en Newcastle Upon Tyne (acento geordie, que es casi un dialecto), en Londres (donde pod√≠a o√≠r un mont√≥n de acentos diferentes, con especial protagonismo del cockney y seg√ļn en que zonas “pijas” el RP o Received Pronounciation) y en Edinburgo (cuya belleza me abrum√≥, pero cuyo acento me dio no pocos quebraderos de cabeza). ¬†Veamos y oigamos aqu√≠ algunos acentos genuinamente brit√°nicos:

Standard English / Inglés estándar 

Antes que nada, una aclaraci√≥n muy importante: El estudio de la RP (Received Pronounciation) se refiere exclusivamente a la pronunciaci√≥n, mientras que “Standard English“, “Queen’s English“, “Oxford English” y “BBC English” tambi√©n se ocupan de cuestiones tales como la gram√°tica, el vocabulario o el estilo. Un individuo que usa RP normalmente habla un ingl√©s est√°ndar, aunque √©sto al rev√©s¬†no es necesariamente cierto (el lenguaje est√°ndar puede ser pronunciado con un acento regional, como un acento de Yorkshire). Habiendo dejado eso claro, escuchemos al profesor David Ley y a su famos√≠simo v√≠deo “3 minutes to a proper British accent with U of A“.

Received Pronounciation (RP)

La Received Pronounciation es el “arist√≥crata” de los acentos ingleses. A parte de haber sido adoptado como el ingl√©s est√°ndar, el RP es el acento que denota prestigio social en Gran Breta√Īa. ¬†El hecho de que haya sido percibido¬†como el acento de los poderosos, con dinero e influencia, le ha granjeado no pocas enemistades y ha sido percibido negativamente por algunos brit√°nicos como demasiado asociado a¬†privilegios inmerecidos. Por este motivo, desde los a√Īos sesenta, las variedades regionales inglesas se han visto m√°s reflejadas en la educaci√≥n. Este v√≠deo nos da una idea:

Cockney accent (London)

¬°Ay, el cockney accent! Empiezas odi√°ndolo, despu√©s escuch√°ndolo como una curiosidad ling√ľ√≠stica (¬°¬ŅPor qu√© diablos utilizan este glotal stop¬†tan anat√≥micamente asfixiante¬†cuando basta con¬†pronunciar la¬†t?!) y sin darte cuenta te vas encari√Īando y acabas mimetiz√°ndolo mientras te fundes con la capital inglesa. Originado en el East-End londinense (distritos de Aldgate, Bethnal Green, Bow, Hackney, Limehouse, Mile End, Old Ford, Poplar, Shoreditch, Stepney, Wapping y Whitechapel) se expandi√≥ por toda la ciudad convirti√©ndose en una se√Īa de identidad de Londres:

Aly Williams es un genio de la formación online. Su canal en Youtube es: Learn English with Papa Teach Me

Brummie accent (Birmingham)

Joel and Lia Youtube channel

Scouce accent (Liverpool)

English like a native Youtube Channel

Liverpool fc Youtube channel

Geordie accent (Newcastle, South Northumberland, Tyneside)

Geordie es a la vez un apodo regional para una persona de la regi√≥n de Tyneside de Inglaterra del noreste y el nombre del dialecto ingl√©s norte√Īo hablado por sus habitantes. El t√©rmino se asocia con Tyneside, South Northumberland, la ciudad de Newcastle-upon-tyne y partes del norte del condado Durham.

Scottish accent (Scotland)

Canal de Youtube Beauty Creep

Un poco de humor para ilustrar el acento¬†escoc√©s…

Acento irlandés

Inglés americano estándar

US map United States map

El General American ¬†(abreviado como GA o GenAm) es una variedad del ingl√©s americano que engloba varios acentos, com√ļnmente atribuida a una mayor√≠a de estadounidenses y popularmente percibida entre los estadounidenses (a diferencia del ingl√©s brit√°nico est√°ndar) como carente de caracter√≠sticas distintivamente regionales, √©tnicas o socioecon√≥micas .

Canal de Youtube Pronunciation Pro

Inglés canadiense

El ingl√©s canadiense contiene elementos del ingl√©s brit√°nico y del ingl√©s americano, as√≠ como muchos “canadiensismos”: elementos “caracter√≠sticos del uso canadiense”.

Canal de Youtube Like a Native Speaker

Inglés australiano

El inglés australiano comenzó a divergir del inglés británico tras la fundación de la colonia de Nueva Gales del Sur en 1788. Se originó a partir de la mezcla de primeros colonos provenientes de una gran variedad de regiones de las Islas Británicas y se convirtió rápidamente en una variedad distinta del inglés.

El inglés australiano difiere de otras variedades de inglés en vocabulario, acento, pronunciación, registro, gramática y ortografía.

Inglés neozelandés

El idioma ingl√©s fue establecido en Nueva Zelanda por los colonos durante el siglo XIX. El ingl√©s neozeland√©s es una de las variedades ¬†m√°s nuevas de la lengua inglesa y se ha desarrollado y diferenciado solamente en los √ļltimos 150 a√Īos. ¬†Las influencias m√°s evidentes en el ingl√©s neozeland√©s provienen del ingl√©s australiano, del ingl√©s del sur de Inglaterra, del ingl√©s irland√©s, del ingl√©s escoc√©s, del prestigio de la Received Pronounciation (RP) y del maor√≠. El ingl√©s de Nueva Zelanda es similar a la pronunciaci√≥n del Ingl√©s australiano, aunque con algunas diferencias clave.

Inglés de Gibraltar

Inglés nigeriano


El Ingl√©s nigeriano, tambi√©n conocido como Nigerian Standard English, es un dialecto del Ingl√©s hablado en Nigeria. Se basa en el ingl√©s brit√°nico, pero en los √ļltimos a√Īos, debido a la influencia de los Estados Unidos de Am√©rica, el ingl√©s nigeriano ha adoptado algunas voces de origen americano. Adem√°s, han aparecido algunas palabras nuevas, ¬†surgidas de¬†la necesidad de expresar conceptos espec√≠ficos de la cultura nigeriana (por ejemplo, senior wife).

El Pidgin nigeriano (un pidgin derivado del inglés) se utiliza sobre todo en conversaciones informales, pero el Nigerian Standard English se utiliza en política, educación, medios de comunicación y otros usos oficiales.

Canal de Youtube de Adefolake

Inglés jamaicano

No debe confundirse con el Patois de Jamaica, también conocido como criollo jamaicano o jamaicano. El inglés jamaicano estándar es una variedad de inglés hablado en Jamaica. Al igual que el inglés canadiense, se parece en parte al inglés británico y en parte al inglés americano, pero tiene muchos aspectos de la entonación irlandesa. En principio, utiliza la misma ortografía que el inglés británico.

Inglés indio

El inglés es uno de los dos idiomas oficiales en India, aunque sólo unos pocos centenares de miles lo tienen como primera lengua. Este divertido vídeo lo explica muy bien.

Canal de Youtube Dyaus Prithivi

Perfect English Pronounciation (British English)

Trainer: Anthony Kelleher

Learn every single English sound from a native British speaker to take your accent and pronunciation to the next level



Perfect English Pronounciation Practice (American English)

Make yourself better understood in English when you learn & practice how to pronounce 12 tricky English consonant sounds



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Diferencias ortográficas entre el inglés británico y el inglés americano

Diferencias ortográficas entre el inglés británico y el inglés americano · Reglas básicas + Lista completa

¬ŅYoghurt o Yogurt, Flavour o Flavor, Doughnut o Donut, Foetus o Fetus,¬†Apologise o Apologize, Catalogue o Catalog, cancelled o Canceled?¬†Sarcastic

Como es sabido, el inglés británico y el inglés americano difieren en la ortografía o escritura ( spelling en inglés) de no pocas palabras. En este artículo veremos las reglas básicas que distinguen el uno del otro y una completa lista de palabras que se escriben de manera diferente en inglés británico y en inglés americano.

Ambas formas son correctas, pero es importante tener en cuenta que hay que ser coherente: si se empieza a escribir en inglés británico, hay que utilizar la ortografía británica, y viceversa.

La palabra “ortograf√≠a” tiene dos acepciones:

  1.  Conjunto de normas de escritura de una lengua
  2. Forma correcta de escribir las palabras y de utilizar los signos auxiliares de una lengua respetando sus normas

Nerd Antes de dar la lista entera, veamos algunas reglas básicas:

ortografía inglés

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -OUR en inglés británico, entonces termina en -OR en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-OUR (BrE) -OR (AmE)
Flavour Flavor
Humour Humor
Neighbour Neighbor
Colour Color

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -ISE en inglés británico, entonces termina en -IZE en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-ISE (BrE) -IZE (AmE)
Organise Organize
Recognise Recognize
Apologise Apologize
Analise Analize

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -RE en inglés británico, entonces termina en -ER en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-RE (BrE) -ER (AmE)
Centre Center
Theatre Theater
Fibre Fiber
Litre Liter
Metre Meter

Nerd Cuando una palabra termina en -OGUE en inglés británico, entonces termina en -OG en inglés americano. Ejemplos:

-OGUE (BrE) -OG (AmE)
Analogue Analog
Dialogue Dialog
Catalogue Catalog

Nerd El inglés británico forma el pasado de los verbos terminados en l doblando la l, y el inglés americano sólo utiliza una l. Ejemplos:

-ll- (BrE) -l- (AmE)
Travelled Traveled
Cancelled Canceled

Nerd Hay otras palabras que se escriben de manera diferente por el mayor apego a las formas arcaicas que tiene el inglés británico. Ejemplos:

Yoghurt Yogurt
Doughnut Donut
Anaemia Anemia
Foetus Fetus

Veamos la lista completa de diferencias entre el inglés británico y el inglés americano:

Enlaces interesantes:

                                                 US map United States map

British English / Inglés Británico American English / Inglés Americano
accessorise accessorize
accessorised accessorized
accessorises accessorizes
accessorising accessorizing
acclimatisation acclimatization
acclimatise acclimatize
acclimatised acclimatized
acclimatises acclimatizes
acclimatising acclimatizing
accoutrements accouterments
aeon eon
aeons eons
aerogramme aerogram
aerogrammes aerograms
aeroplane airplane
aeroplanes airplanes
aesthete esthete
aesthetes esthetes
aesthetic esthetic
aesthetically esthetically
aesthetics esthetics
aetiology etiology
ageing aging
aggrandisement aggrandizement
agonise agonize
agonised agonized
agonises agonizes
agonising agonizing
agonisingly agonizingly
almanack almanac
almanacks almanacs
aluminium aluminum
amortisable amortizable
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amphitheatre amphitheater
amphitheatres amphitheaters
anaemia anemia
anaemic anemic
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anaesthetic anesthetic
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appetiser appetizer
appetisers appetizers
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appetisingly appetizingly
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armourer armorer
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armoury armory
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artefacts artifacts
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axe ax
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backpedalling backpedaling
bannister banister
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baptising baptizing
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bastardising bastardizing
battleaxe battleax
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baulking balking
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behaviourist behaviorist
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bevvy bevy
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biassing biasing
bingeing binging
bougainvillaea bougainvillea
bougainvillaeas bougainvilleas
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bowdlerising bowdlerizing
breathalyse breathalyze
breathalysed breathalyzed
breathalyser breathalyzer
breathalysers breathalyzers
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breathalysing breathalyzing
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brutalising brutalizing
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busing bussing
caesarean cesarean
caesareans cesareans
calibre caliber
calibres calibers
calliper caliper
callipers calipers
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cancellation cancelation
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cancelling canceling
candour candor
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cannibalising cannibalizing
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canonising canonizing
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caramelising caramelizing
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carolling caroling
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cavilling caviling
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centigrammes centigrams
centilitre centiliter
centilitres centiliters
centimetre centimeter
centimetres centimeters
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centralising centralizing
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centrefold centerfold
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centrepiece centerpiece
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channelling channeling
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characterising characterizing
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chequebook checkbook
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chimaera chimera
chimaeras chimeras
chiselled chiseled
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circularising circularizing
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civilised civilized
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clamoured clamored
clamouring clamoring
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clangour clangor
clarinettist clarinetist
clarinettists clarinetists
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coloniser colonizer
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colonising colonizing
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colourant colorant
colourants colorants
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coloureds coloreds
colourful colorful
colourfully colorfully
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colourized colorized
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colourizing colorizing
colourless colorless
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compartmentalise compartmentalize
compartmentalised compartmentalized
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compartmentalising compartmentalizing
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computerised computerized
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computerising computerizing
conceptualise conceptualize
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conceptualising conceptualizing
connexion connection
connexions connections
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contextualising contextualizing
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cosiest coziest
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cosy cozy
councillor councilor
councillors councilors
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counselling counseling
counsellor counselor
counsellors counselors
crenellated crenelated
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criminalised criminalized
criminalises criminalizes
criminalising criminalizing
criticise criticize
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criticises criticizes
criticising criticizing
crueller crueler
cruellest cruelest
crystallisation crystallization
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crystallised crystallized
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crystallising crystallizing
cudgelled cudgeled
cudgelling cudgeling
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customised customized
customises customizes
customising customizing
cypher cipher
cyphers ciphers
decentralisation decentralization
decentralise decentralize
decentralised decentralized
decentralises decentralizes
decentralising decentralizing
decriminalisation decriminalization
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decriminalises decriminalizes
decriminalising decriminalizing
defence defense
defenceless defenseless
defences defenses
dehumanisation dehumanization
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dehumanised dehumanized
dehumanises dehumanizes
dehumanising dehumanizing
demeanour demeanor
demilitarisation demilitarization
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demilitarised demilitarized
demilitarises demilitarizes
demilitarising demilitarizing
demobilisation demobilization
demobilise demobilize
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demobilises demobilizes
demobilising demobilizing
democratisation democratization
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democratised democratized
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democratising democratizing
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demonised demonized
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demonising demonizing
demoralisation demoralization
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demoralising demoralizing
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denationalising denationalizing
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deodorised deodorized
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deodorising deodorizing
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depersonalised depersonalized
depersonalises depersonalizes
depersonalising depersonalizing
deputise deputize
deputised deputized
deputises deputizes
deputising deputizing
desensitisation desensitization
desensitise desensitize
desensitised desensitized
desensitises desensitizes
desensitising desensitizing
destabilisation destabilization
destabilise destabilize
destabilised destabilized
destabilises destabilizes
destabilising destabilizing
dialled dialed
dialling dialing
dialogue dialog
dialogues dialogs
diarrhoea diarrhea
digitise digitize
digitised digitized
digitises digitizes
digitising digitizing
disc disk
discolour discolor
discoloured discolored
discolouring discoloring
discolours discolors
discs disks
disembowelled disemboweled
disembowelling disemboweling
disfavour disfavor
dishevelled disheveled
dishonour dishonor
dishonourable dishonorable
dishonourably dishonorably
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dishonouring dishonoring
dishonours dishonors
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disorganised disorganized
distil distill
distils distills
dramatisation dramatization
dramatisations dramatizations
dramatise dramatize
dramatised dramatized
dramatises dramatizes
dramatising dramatizing
draught draft
draughtboard draftboard
draughtboards draftboards
draughtier draftier
draughtiest draftiest
draughts drafts
draughtsman draftsman
draughtsmanship draftsmanship
draughtsmen draftsmen
draughtswoman draftswoman
draughtswomen draftswomen
draughty drafty
drivelled driveled
drivelling driveling
duelled dueled
duelling dueling
economise economize
economised economized
economises economizes
economising economizing
edoema edema
editorialise editorialize
editorialised editorialized
editorialises editorializes
editorialising editorializing
empathise empathize
empathised empathized
empathises empathizes
empathising empathizing
emphasise emphasize
emphasised emphasized
emphasises emphasizes
emphasising emphasizing
enamelled enameled
enamelling enameling
enamoured enamored
encyclopaedia encyclopedia
encyclopaedias encyclopedias
encyclopaedic encyclopedic
endeavour endeavor
endeavoured endeavored
endeavouring endeavoring
endeavours endeavors
energise energize
energised energized
energises energizes
energising energizing
enrol enroll
enrols enrolls
enthral enthrall
enthrals enthralls
epaulette epaulet
epaulettes epaulets
epicentre epicenter
epicentres epicenters
epilogue epilog
epilogues epilogs
epitomise epitomize
epitomised epitomized
epitomises epitomizes
epitomising epitomizing
equalisation equalization
equalise equalize
equalised equalized
equaliser equalizer
equalisers equalizers
equalises equalizes
equalising equalizing
eulogise eulogize
eulogised eulogized
eulogises eulogizes
eulogising eulogizing
evangelise evangelize
evangelised evangelized
evangelises evangelizes
evangelising evangelizing
exorcise exorcize
exorcised exorcized
exorcises exorcizes
exorcising exorcizing
extemporisation extemporization
extemporise extemporize
extemporised extemporized
extemporises extemporizes
extemporising extemporizing
externalisation externalization
externalisations externalizations
externalise externalize
externalised externalized
externalises externalizes
externalising externalizing
factorise factorize
factorised factorized
factorises factorizes
factorising factorizing
faecal fecal
faeces feces
familiarisation familiarization
familiarise familiarize
familiarised familiarized
familiarises familiarizes
familiarising familiarizing
fantasise fantasize
fantasised fantasized
fantasises fantasizes
fantasising fantasizing
favour favor
favourable favorable
favourably favorably
favoured favored
favouring favoring
favourite favorite
favourites favorites
favouritism favoritism
favours favors
feminise feminize
feminised feminized
feminises feminizes
feminising feminizing
fertilisation fertilization
fertilise fertilize
fertilised fertilized
fertiliser fertilizer
fertilisers fertilizers
fertilises fertilizes
fertilising fertilizing
fervour fervor
fibre fiber
fibreglass fiberglass
fibres fibers
fictionalisation fictionalization
fictionalisations fictionalizations
fictionalise fictionalize
fictionalised fictionalized
fictionalises fictionalizes
fictionalising fictionalizing
fillet filet
filleted fileted
filleting fileting
fillets filets
finalisation finalization
finalise finalize
finalised finalized
finalises finalizes
finalising finalizing
flautist flutist
flautists flutists
flavour flavor
flavoured flavored
flavouring flavoring
flavourings flavorings
flavourless flavorless
flavours flavors
flavoursome flavorsome
flyer / flier flier / flyer
foetal fetal
foetid fetid
foetus fetus
foetuses fetuses
formalisation formalization
formalise formalize
formalised formalized
formalises formalizes
formalising formalizing
fossilisation fossilization
fossilise fossilize
fossilised fossilized
fossilises fossilizes
fossilising fossilizing
fraternisation fraternization
fraternise fraternize
fraternised fraternized
fraternises fraternizes
fraternising fraternizing
fulfil fulfill
fulfilment fulfillment
fulfils fulfills
funnelled funneled
funnelling funneling
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galvanised galvanized
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galvanising galvanizing
gambolled gamboled
gambolling gamboling
gaol jail
gaolbird jailbird
gaolbirds jailbirds
gaolbreak jailbreak
gaolbreaks jailbreaks
gaoled jailed
gaoler jailer
gaolers jailers
gaoling jailing
gaols jails
gases gasses
gauge gage
gauged gaged
gauges gages
gauging gaging
generalisation generalization
generalisations generalizations
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generalised generalized
generalises generalizes
generalising generalizing
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ghettoised ghettoized
ghettoises ghettoizes
ghettoising ghettoizing
gipsies gypsies
glamorise glamorize
glamorised glamorized
glamorises glamorizes
glamorising glamorizing
glamour glamor
globalisation globalization
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globalised globalized
globalises globalizes
globalising globalizing
glueing gluing
goitre goiter
goitres goiters
gonorrhoea gonorrhea
gramme gram
grammes grams
gravelled graveled
grey gray
greyed grayed
greying graying
greyish grayish
greyness grayness
greys grays
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grovelling groveling
groyne groin
groynes groins
gruelling grueling
gruellingly gruelingly
gryphon griffin
gryphons griffins
gynaecological gynecological
gynaecologist gynecologist
gynaecologists gynecologists
gynaecology gynecology
haematological hematological
haematologist hematologist
haematologists hematologists
haematology hematology
haemoglobin hemoglobin
haemophilia hemophilia
haemophiliac hemophiliac
haemophiliacs hemophiliacs
haemorrhage hemorrhage
haemorrhaged hemorrhaged
haemorrhages hemorrhages
haemorrhaging hemorrhaging
haemorrhoids hemorrhoids
harbour harbor
harboured harbored
harbouring harboring
harbours harbors
harmonisation harmonization
harmonise harmonize
harmonised harmonized
harmonises harmonizes
harmonising harmonizing
homoeopath homeopath
homoeopathic homeopathic
homoeopaths homeopaths
homoeopathy homeopathy
homogenise homogenize
homogenised homogenized
homogenises homogenizes
homogenising homogenizing
honour honor
honourable honorable
honourably honorably
honoured honored
honouring honoring
honours honors
hospitalisation hospitalization
hospitalise hospitalize
hospitalised hospitalized
hospitalises hospitalizes
hospitalising hospitalizing
humanise humanize
humanised humanized
humanises humanizes
humanising humanizing
humour humor
humoured humored
humouring humoring
humourless humorless
humours humors
hybridise hybridize
hybridised hybridized
hybridises hybridizes
hybridising hybridizing
hypnotise hypnotize
hypnotised hypnotized
hypnotises hypnotizes
hypnotising hypnotizing
hypothesise hypothesize
hypothesised hypothesized
hypothesises hypothesizes
hypothesising hypothesizing
idealisation idealization
idealise idealize
idealised idealized
idealises idealizes
idealising idealizing
idolise idolize
idolised idolized
idolises idolizes
idolising idolizing
immobilisation immobilization
immobilise immobilize
immobilised immobilized
immobiliser immobilizer
immobilisers immobilizers
immobilises immobilizes
immobilising immobilizing
immortalise immortalize
immortalised immortalized
immortalises immortalizes
immortalising immortalizing
immunisation immunization
immunise immunize
immunised immunized
immunises immunizes
immunising immunizing
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impanelling impaneling
imperilled imperiled
imperilling imperiling
individualise individualize
individualised individualized
individualises individualizes
individualising individualizing
industrialise industrialize
industrialised industrialized
industrialises industrializes
industrialising industrializing
inflexion inflection
inflexions inflections
initialise initialize
initialised initialized
initialises initializes
initialising initializing
initialled initialed
initialling initialing
instal install
instalment installment
instalments installments
instals installs
instil instill
instils instills
institutionalisation institutionalization
institutionalise institutionalize
institutionalised institutionalized
institutionalises institutionalizes
institutionalising institutionalizing
intellectualise intellectualize
intellectualised intellectualized
intellectualises intellectualizes
intellectualising intellectualizing
internalisation internalization
internalise internalize
internalised internalized
internalises internalizes
internalising internalizing
internationalisation internationalization
internationalise internationalize
internationalised internationalized
internationalises internationalizes
internationalising internationalizing
ionisation ionization
ionise ionize
ionised ionized
ioniser ionizer
ionisers ionizers
ionises ionizes
ionising ionizing
italicise italicize
italicised italicized
italicises italicizes
italicising italicizing
itemise itemize
itemised itemized
itemises itemizes
itemising itemizing
jeopardise jeopardize
jeopardised jeopardized
jeopardises jeopardizes
jeopardising jeopardizing
jewelled jeweled
jeweller jeweler
jewellers jewelers
jewellery jewelry
judgement judgment
kilogramme kilogram
kilogrammes kilograms
kilometre kilometer
kilometres kilometers
labelled labeled
labelling labeling
labour labor
laboured labored
labourer laborer
labourers laborers
labouring laboring
labours labors
lacklustre lackluster
legalisation legalization
legalise legalize
legalised legalized
legalises legalizes
legalising legalizing
legitimise legitimize
legitimised legitimized
legitimises legitimizes
legitimising legitimizing
leukaemia leukemia
levelled leveled
leveller leveler
levellers levelers
levelling leveling
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libelling libeling
libellous libelous
liberalisation liberalization
liberalise liberalize
liberalised liberalized
liberalises liberalizes
liberalising liberalizing
licence license
licenced licensed
licences licenses
licencing licensing
likeable likable
lionisation lionization
lionise lionize
lionised lionized
lionises lionizes
lionising lionizing
liquidise liquidize
liquidised liquidized
liquidiser liquidizer
liquidisers liquidizers
liquidises liquidizes
liquidising liquidizing
litre liter
litres liters
localise localize
localised localized
localises localizes
localising localizing
louvre louver
louvred louvered
louvres louvers
lustre luster
magnetise magnetize
magnetised magnetized
magnetises magnetizes
magnetising magnetizing
manoeuvrability maneuverability
manoeuvrable maneuverable
manoeuvre maneuver
manoeuvred maneuvered
manoeuvres maneuvers
manoeuvring maneuvering
manoeuvrings maneuverings
marginalisation marginalization
marginalise marginalize
marginalised marginalized
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marginalising marginalizing
marshalled marshaled
marshalling marshaling
marvelled marveled
marvelling marveling
marvellous marvelous
marvellously marvelously
materialisation materialization
materialise materialize
materialised materialized
materialises materializes
materialising materializing
maximisation maximization
maximise maximize
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maximising maximizing
meagre meager
mechanisation mechanization
mechanise mechanize
mechanised mechanized
mechanises mechanizes
mechanising mechanizing
mediaeval medieval
memorialise memorialize
memorialised memorialized
memorialises memorializes
memorialising memorializing
memorise memorize
memorised memorized
memorises memorizes
memorising memorizing
mesmerise mesmerize
mesmerised mesmerized
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mesmerising mesmerizing
metabolise metabolize
metabolised metabolized
metabolises metabolizes
metabolising metabolizing
metre meter
metres meters
micrometre micrometer
micrometres micrometers
militarise militarize
militarised militarized
militarises militarizes
militarising militarizing
milligramme milligram
milligrammes milligrams
millilitre milliliter
millilitres milliliters
millimetre millimeter
millimetres millimeters
miniaturisation miniaturization
miniaturise miniaturize
miniaturised miniaturized
miniaturises miniaturizes
miniaturising miniaturizing
minibuses minibusses
minimise minimize
minimised minimized
minimises minimizes
minimising minimizing
misbehaviour misbehavior
misdemeanour misdemeanor
misdemeanours misdemeanors
misspelt misspelled
mitre miter
mitres miters
mobilisation mobilization
mobilise mobilize
mobilised mobilized
mobilises mobilizes
mobilising mobilizing
modelled modeled
modeller modeler
modellers modelers
modelling modeling
modernise modernize
modernised modernized
modernises modernizes
modernising modernizing
moisturise moisturize
moisturised moisturized
moisturiser moisturizer
moisturisers moisturizers
moisturises moisturizes
moisturising moisturizing
monologue monolog
monologues monologs
monopolisation monopolization
monopolise monopolize
monopolised monopolized
monopolises monopolizes
monopolising monopolizing
moralise moralize
moralised moralized
moralises moralizes
moralising moralizing
motorised motorized
mould mold
moulded molded
moulder molder
mouldered moldered
mouldering moldering
moulders molders
mouldier moldier
mouldiest moldiest
moulding molding
mouldings moldings
moulds molds
mouldy moldy
moult molt
moulted molted
moulting molting
moults molts
moustache mustache
moustached mustached
moustaches mustaches
moustachioed mustachioed
multicoloured multicolored
nationalisation nationalization
nationalisations nationalizations
nationalise nationalize
nationalised nationalized
nationalises nationalizes
nationalising nationalizing
naturalisation naturalization
naturalise naturalize
naturalised naturalized
naturalises naturalizes
naturalising naturalizing
neighbour neighbor
neighbourhood neighborhood
neighbourhoods neighborhoods
neighbouring neighboring
neighbourliness neighborliness
neighbourly neighborly
neighbours neighbors
neutralisation neutralization
neutralise neutralize
neutralised neutralized
neutralises neutralizes
neutralising neutralizing
normalisation normalization
normalise normalize
normalised normalized
normalises normalizes
normalising normalizing
odour odor
odourless odorless
odours odors
oesophagus esophagus
oesophaguses esophaguses
oestrogen estrogen
offence offense
offences offenses
omelette omelet
omelettes omelets
optimise optimize
optimised optimized
optimises optimizes
optimising optimizing
organisation organization
organisational organizational
organisations organizations
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organised organized
organiser organizer
organisers organizers
organises organizes
organising organizing
orthopaedic orthopedic
orthopaedics orthopedics
ostracise ostracize
ostracised ostracized
ostracises ostracizes
ostracising ostracizing
outmanoeuvre outmaneuver
outmanoeuvred outmaneuvered
outmanoeuvres outmaneuvers
outmanoeuvring outmaneuvering
overemphasise overemphasize
overemphasised overemphasized
overemphasises overemphasizes
overemphasising overemphasizing
oxidisation oxidization
oxidise oxidize
oxidised oxidized
oxidises oxidizes
oxidising oxidizing
paederast pederast
paederasts pederasts
paediatric pediatric
paediatrician pediatrician
paediatricians pediatricians
paediatrics pediatrics
paedophile pedophile
paedophiles pedophiles
paedophilia pedophilia
palaeolithic paleolithic
palaeontologist paleontologist
palaeontologists paleontologists
palaeontology paleontology
panelled paneled
panelling paneling
panellist panelist
panellists panelists
paralyse paralyze
paralysed paralyzed
paralyses paralyzes
paralysing paralyzing
parcelled parceled
parcelling parceling
parlour parlor
parlours parlors
particularise particularize
particularised particularized
particularises particularizes
particularising particularizing
passivisation passivization
passivise passivize
passivised passivized
passivises passivizes
passivising passivizing
pasteurisation pasteurization
pasteurise pasteurize
pasteurised pasteurized
pasteurises pasteurizes
pasteurising pasteurizing
patronise patronize
patronised patronized
patronises patronizes
patronising patronizing
patronisingly patronizingly
pedalled pedaled
pedalling pedaling
pedestrianisation pedestrianization
pedestrianise pedestrianize
pedestrianised pedestrianized
pedestrianises pedestrianizes
pedestrianising pedestrianizing
penalise penalize
penalised penalized
penalises penalizes
penalising penalizing
pencilled penciled
pencilling penciling
personalise personalize
personalised personalized
personalises personalizes
personalising personalizing
pharmacopoeia pharmacopeia
pharmacopoeias pharmacopeias
philosophise philosophize
philosophised philosophized
philosophises philosophizes
philosophising philosophizing
philtre filter
philtres filters
phoney phony
plagiarise plagiarize
plagiarised plagiarized
plagiarises plagiarizes
plagiarising plagiarizing
plough plow
ploughed plowed
ploughing plowing
ploughman plowman
ploughmen plowmen
ploughs plows
ploughshare plowshare
ploughshares plowshares
polarisation polarization
polarise polarize
polarised polarized
polarises polarizes
polarising polarizing
politicisation politicization
politicise politicize
politicised politicized
politicises politicizes
politicising politicizing
popularisation popularization
popularise popularize
popularised popularized
popularises popularizes
popularising popularizing
pouffe pouf
pouffes poufs
practise practice
practised practiced
practises practices
practising practicing
praesidium presidium
praesidiums presidiums
pressurisation pressurization
pressurise pressurize
pressurised pressurized
pressurises pressurizes
pressurising pressurizing
pretence pretense
pretences pretenses
primaeval primeval
prioritisation prioritization
prioritise prioritize
prioritised prioritized
prioritises prioritizes
prioritising prioritizing
privatisation privatization
privatisations privatizations
privatise privatize
privatised privatized
privatises privatizes
privatising privatizing
professionalisation professionalization
professionalise professionalize
professionalised professionalized
professionalises professionalizes
professionalising professionalizing
programme program
programmes programs
prologue prolog
prologues prologs
propagandise propagandize
propagandised propagandized
propagandises propagandizes
propagandising propagandizing
proselytise proselytize
proselytised proselytized
proselytiser proselytizer
proselytisers proselytizers
proselytises proselytizes
proselytising proselytizing
psychoanalyse psychoanalyze
psychoanalysed psychoanalyzed
psychoanalyses psychoanalyzes
psychoanalysing psychoanalyzing
publicise publicize
publicised publicized
publicises publicizes
publicising publicizing
pulverisation pulverization
pulverise pulverize
pulverised pulverized
pulverises pulverizes
pulverising pulverizing
pummelled pummel
pummelling pummeled
pyjama pajama
pyjamas pajamas
pzazz pizzazz
quarrelled quarreled
quarrelling quarreling
radicalise radicalize
radicalised radicalized
radicalises radicalizes
radicalising radicalizing
rancour rancor
randomise randomize
randomised randomized
randomises randomizes
randomising randomizing
rationalisation rationalization
rationalisations rationalizations
rationalise rationalize
rationalised rationalized
rationalises rationalizes
rationalising rationalizing
ravelled raveled
ravelling raveling
realisable realizable
realisation realization
realisations realizations
realise realize
realised realized
realises realizes
realising realizing
recognisable recognizable
recognisably recognizably
recognisance recognizance
recognise recognize
recognised recognized
recognises recognizes
recognising recognizing
reconnoitre reconnoiter
reconnoitred reconnoitered
reconnoitres reconnoiters
reconnoitring reconnoitering
refuelled refueled
refuelling refueling
regularisation regularization
regularise regularize
regularised regularized
regularises regularizes
regularising regularizing
remodelled remodeled
remodelling remodeling
remould remold
remoulded remolded
remoulding remolding
remoulds remolds
reorganisation reorganization
reorganisations reorganizations
reorganise reorganize
reorganised reorganized
reorganises reorganizes
reorganising reorganizing
revelled reveled
reveller reveler
revellers revelers
revelling reveling
revitalise revitalize
revitalised revitalized
revitalises revitalizes
revitalising revitalizing
revolutionise revolutionize
revolutionised revolutionized
revolutionises revolutionizes
revolutionising revolutionizing
rhapsodise rhapsodize
rhapsodised rhapsodized
rhapsodises rhapsodizes
rhapsodising rhapsodizing
rigour rigor
rigours rigors
ritualised ritualized
rivalled rivaled
rivalling rivaling
romanticise romanticize
romanticised romanticized
romanticises romanticizes
romanticising romanticizing
rumour rumor
rumoured rumored
rumours rumors
sabre saber
sabres sabers
saltpetre saltpeter
sanitise sanitize
sanitised sanitized
sanitises sanitizes
sanitising sanitizing
satirise satirize
satirised satirized
satirises satirizes
satirising satirizing
saviour savior
saviours saviors
savour savor
savoured savored
savouries savories
savouring savoring
savours savors
savoury savory
scandalise scandalize
scandalised scandalized
scandalises scandalizes
scandalising scandalizing
sceptic skeptic
sceptical skeptical
sceptically skeptically
scepticism skepticism
sceptics skeptics
sceptre scepter
sceptres scepters
scrutinise scrutinize
scrutinised scrutinized
scrutinises scrutinizes
scrutinising scrutinizing
secularisation secularization
secularise secularize
secularised secularized
secularises secularizes
secularising secularizing
sensationalise sensationalize
sensationalised sensationalized
sensationalises sensationalizes
sensationalising sensationalizing
sensitise sensitize
sensitised sensitized
sensitises sensitizes
sensitising sensitizing
sentimentalise sentimentalize
sentimentalised sentimentalized
sentimentalises sentimentalizes
sentimentalising sentimentalizing
sepulchre sepulcher
sepulchres sepulchers
serialisation serialization
serialisations serializations
serialise serialize
serialised serialized
serialises serializes
serialising serializing
sermonise sermonize
sermonised sermonized
sermonises sermonizes
sermonising sermonizing
sheikh sheik
shovelled shoveled
shovelling shoveling
shrivelled shriveled
shrivelling shriveling
signalise signalize
signalised signalized
signalises signalizes
signalising signalizing
signalled signaled
signalling signaling
smoulder smolder
smouldered smoldered
smouldering smoldering
smoulders smolders
snivelled sniveled
snivelling sniveling
snorkelled snorkeled
snorkelling snorkeling
snowplough snowplow
snowploughs snowplow
socialisation socialization
socialise socialize
socialised socialized
socialises socializes
socialising socializing
sodomise sodomize
sodomised sodomized
sodomises sodomizes
sodomising sodomizing
solemnise solemnize
solemnised solemnized
solemnises solemnizes
solemnising solemnizing
sombre somber
specialisation specialization
specialisations specializations
specialise specialize
specialised specialized
specialises specializes
specialising specializing
spectre specter
spectres specters
spiralled spiraled
spiralling spiraling
splendour splendor
splendours splendors
squirrelled squirreled
squirrelling squirreling
stabilisation stabilization
stabilise stabilize
stabilised stabilized
stabiliser stabilizer
stabilisers stabilizers
stabilises stabilizes
stabilising stabilizing
standardisation standardization
standardise standardize
standardised standardized
standardises standardizes
standardising standardizing
stencilled stenciled
stencilling stenciling
sterilisation sterilization
sterilisations sterilizations
sterilise sterilize
sterilised sterilized
steriliser sterilizer
sterilisers sterilizers
sterilises sterilizes
sterilising sterilizing
stigmatisation stigmatization
stigmatise stigmatize
stigmatised stigmatized
stigmatises stigmatizes
stigmatising stigmatizing
storey story
storeys stories
subsidisation subsidization
subsidise subsidize
subsidised subsidized
subsidiser subsidizer
subsidisers subsidizers
subsidises subsidizes
subsidising subsidizing
succour succor
succoured succored
succouring succoring
succours succors
sulphate sulfate
sulphates sulfates
sulphide sulfide
sulphides sulfides
sulphur sulfur
sulphurous sulfurous
summarise summarize
summarised summarized
summarises summarizes
summarising summarizing
swivelled swiveled
swivelling swiveling
symbolise symbolize
symbolised symbolized
symbolises symbolizes
symbolising symbolizing
sympathise sympathize
sympathised sympathized
sympathiser sympathizer
sympathisers sympathizers
sympathises sympathizes
sympathising sympathizing
synchronisation synchronization
synchronise synchronize
synchronised synchronized
synchronises synchronizes
synchronising synchronizing
synthesise synthesize
synthesised synthesized
synthesiser synthesizer
synthesisers synthesizers
synthesises synthesizes
synthesising synthesizing
syphon siphon
syphoned siphoned
syphoning siphoning
syphons siphons
systematisation systematization
systematise systematize
systematised systematized
systematises systematizes
systematising systematizing
tantalise tantalize
tantalised tantalized
tantalises tantalizes
tantalising tantalizing
tantalisingly tantalizingly
tasselled tasseled
technicolour technicolor
temporise temporize
temporised temporized
temporises temporizes
temporising temporizing
tenderise tenderize
tenderised tenderized
tenderises tenderizes
tenderising tenderizing
terrorise terrorize
terrorised terrorized
terrorises terrorizes
terrorising terrorizing
theatre theater
theatregoer theatergoer
theatregoers theatergoers
theatres theaters
theorise theorize
theorised theorized
theorises theorizes
theorising theorizing
tonne ton
tonnes tons
towelled toweled
towelling toweling
toxaemia toxemia
tranquillise tranquilize
tranquillised tranquilized
tranquilliser tranquilizer
tranquillisers tranquilizers
tranquillises tranquilizes
tranquillising tranquilizing
tranquillity tranquility
tranquillize tranquilize
tranquillized tranquilized
tranquillizer tranquilizer
tranquillizers tranquilizers
tranquillizes tranquilizes
tranquillizing tranquilizing
tranquilly tranquility
transistorised transistorized
traumatise traumatize
traumatised traumatized
traumatises traumatizes
traumatising traumatizing
travelled traveled
traveller traveler
travellers travelers
travelling traveling
travelogue travelog
travelogues travelogs
trialled trialed
trialling trialing
tricolour tricolor
tricolours tricolors
trivialise trivialize
trivialised trivialized
trivialises trivializes
trivialising trivializing
tumour tumor
tumours tumors
tunnelled tunneled
tunnelling tunneling
tyrannise tyrannize
tyrannised tyrannized
tyrannises tyrannizes
tyrannising tyrannizing
tyre tire
tyres tires
unauthorised unauthorized
uncivilised uncivilized
underutilised underutilized
unequalled unequaled
unfavourable unfavorable
unfavourably unfavorably
unionisation unionization
unionise unionize
unionised unionized
unionises unionizes
unionising unionizing
unorganised unorganized
unravelled unraveled
unravelling unraveling
unrecognisable unrecognizable
unrecognised unrecognized
unrivalled unrivaled
unsavoury unsavory
untrammelled untrammeled
urbanisation urbanization
urbanise urbanize
urbanised urbanized
urbanises urbanizes
urbanising urbanizing
utilisable utilizable
utilisation utilization
utilise utilize
utilised utilized
utilises utilizes
utilising utilizing
valour valor
vandalise vandalize
vandalised vandalized
vandalises vandalizes
vandalising vandalizing
vaporisation vaporization
vaporise vaporize
vaporised vaporized
vaporises vaporizes
vaporising vaporizing
vapour vapor
vapours vapors
verbalise verbalize
verbalised verbalized
verbalises verbalizes
verbalising verbalizing
victimisation victimization
victimise victimize
victimised victimized
victimises victimizes
victimising victimizing
videodisc videodisk
videodiscs videodisks
vigour vigor
visualisation visualization
visualisations visualizations
visualise visualize
visualised visualized
visualises visualizes
visualising visualizing
vocalisation vocalization
vocalisations vocalizations
vocalise vocalize
vocalised vocalized
vocalises vocalizes
vocalising vocalizing
vulcanised vulcanized
vulgarisation vulgarization
vulgarise vulgarize
vulgarised vulgarized
vulgarises vulgarizes
vulgarising vulgarizing
waggon wagon
waggons wagons
watercolour watercolor
watercolours watercolors
weaselled weaseled
weaselling weaseling
westernisation westernization
westernise westernize
westernised westernized
westernises westernizes
westernising westernizing
womanise womanize
womanised womanized
womaniser womanizer
womanisers womanizers
womanises womanizes
womanising womanizing
woollen woolen
woollens woolens
woollies woolies
woolly wooly
worshipped worshiped
worshipping worshiping
worshipper worshiper
yodelled yodeled
yodelling yodeling
yoghourt yogurt
yoghourts yogurts
yoghurt yogurt
yoghurts yogurts

Difference between ‚ÄúMerry Christmas‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúHappy Christmas‚ÄĚ

Merry Christmas Vs Happy Christmas

The word “Merry” stems from the old English myrge, which means “pleasing, agreeable, pleasant or sweet”, and Christmas stems from the late Old English Cristes m√¶sse, that means “Mass of Christ.”


The greeting ‚ÄúMerry Christmas‚ÄĚ dates back to  1565, when the author of the Hereford Municipal Manuscript wrote ‚ÄúAnd thus I comytt you to God, who send you a mery Christmas & many.‚ÄĚ  It was solidified as a capitalized greeting by Charles Dickens in his great work A Christmas Carol.


Charles Dickens and Queen Elizabeth

However, Queen Elizabeth didn’t like how “merry” sounds. That’s the reason why she preferred ‚Äúhappy‚ÄĚ to ‚Äúmerry‚ÄĚ , and she used it in her broadcasts to her subjects, so the term gained popularity over the following decades and it is still the most common form in Great Britain and Ireland.

Odd as it may seem, the fact is that today, in England and much of its  Commonwealth, the common greeting is “Happy Christmas”  whereas ‚ÄúMerry Christmas‚ÄĚ, a more archaic expression,  is what people say in America.

So Merry Christmas or Happy Christmas to all my fellow readers!

Merry Christmas in French: Joyeux No√ęl!
Merry Christmas in Spanish: ¬°Feliz Navidad!
Merry Christmas in German: Frohe Weihnachten!
Merry Christmas in Italian: Buon Natale!
Merry Christmas in Portuguese: Feliz Natal!
Merry Christmas in Japanese: „É°„É™„Éľ„āĮ„É™„āĻ„Éě„āĻ
Merry Christmas in Russian: –° –†–ĺ–∂–ī–Ķ—Ā—ā–≤–ĺ–ľ!
Merry Christmas in Dutch: Vrolijk kerstfeest!
Merry Christmas in Swedish: God jul!
Merry Christmas in Czech: Veselé vánoce!
Merry Christmas in Turkish: Mutlu Noeller!
Merry Christmas in Catalan: Bon Nadal!
Merry Christmas in Basque: Eguberry on!
Merry Christmas in Galician: Bo Nadal!…


Difference between Merry Xmas and Happy Xmas